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Ask a vet online – My dog has black dandruff!

Sheila Elcott asked:

I have an 11 year old red fox lab boy who keeps getting a build up of black coloured dandruff type patches under his chin & his manly areas. Up to date with spot on. Is it his age & lack of my grooming care? After bathing & removing said patches the skin clears. He has hip & elbow dysplacia to boot. Tnx

Answer:

Hi Sheila, thanks for your question. Skin problems in dogs can be really frustrating to deal with, so I’ll go through some of the possibilities, then talk about how they can be investigated and managed.

So, what can cause patches of black dandruff material to appear?

There are a number of possibilities that spring immediately to mind:…

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Old cat, young cat: a bittersweet episode in the life of a companion animal vet

Mrs Kennedy was an elderly widow, whose only companion was a small seventeen year old cat called Puss. Mrs Kennedy had phoned me because she thought that Puss had broken her leg after chasing another cat.

I wasn’t expecting anything too serious. Cats commonly hurt themselves while fighting with each other. An owner may think that the leg is broken, but in most cases the problem is a simple cat bite abscess, which can be easily treated. However, this time it was different. The owner was right.

Mrs Kennedy explained how a neighbouring cat had sneaked into the kitchen, and Puss had leapt up to chase it away. Immediately afterwards, she’d started limping, and since then she had barely moved from her bed…

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10 tips for keeping your horse cool this summer

While the sun’s glorious rays may leave us jumping for joy, and our saddles, we must be vigilant about ensuring our horses’ well-being. Here are some top tips to avoid the dreaded heat stroke, and ensure our four-legged friends have as much fun in the sun as we do!

What is heat stroke?

Heat exhaustion is characterised by:
1. An elevated body temperature (hyperthermia; a temperature exceeding 41oC/105 F);
2. An elevated heart rate (tachycardia; the normal heart rate of a horse is 36 – 42 beats per minute, although this may be higher in smaller ponies)
3. An elevated respiratory rate (tachypnoea – exceeding the normal 8 – 12 breaths per minute);
4. A tired, unresponsive horse;
5. The horse’s gums will feel dry and tacky; if you press on them, the area under pressure will turn white, and the time to return to normal colour will be longer than in a non-thermally stressed horse. Vets may describe this as a capillary refill time in excess of 3 seconds.

If there is no intervention, the condition may escalate to heat stroke where the horse may stagger, appear depressed or, in extreme cases with central nervous system damage, collapse and have convulsions. This is a serious medical emergency that we have the ability to prevent….

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Kittens with passengers: ear mites

When a litter of rescued kittens were brought to see me recently, a careful examination of their ears was an important part of the check-up. I introduced the tip ofthe auroscope into each kitten’s ear, and by looking through the instrument I was able to see a magnified view of each ear canal. In normal animals, the pale blue-grey of the eardrum itself can often be seen. However, in these kittens, I could hardly see any normal ear canal. My view was blocked completely by thick, brown, sticky earwax. The cause of the excessive ear wax could be seen very clearly. Tiny white wriggling insect-like creatures could be seen swarming around the inside of each ear. The kittens were infected with ear mites.

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Ask a vet online – My pets breath is bad, but teeth are fine – help!

Question from Sarah Knight:

My Scottie has horrendous breath, teeth are fine, have changed her diet, she also has charcoal on her meals, any other ideas truly welcomed!

Answer: Bad Breath

Hi Sarah, thanks for your question about your dog’s bad breath. To answer it, I’m going to run through the possible causes of halitosis, along with any other symptoms they might show. I’ll then talk about the most likely reasons, and where to go next with diagnosis and treatment options.

Causes of Halitosis

Halitosis, or “bad breath”, is defined as an “offensive odour emanating from the oral cavity”. There are a number of possible causes, some of which are more common than others.

1) Diet

You say you’ve modified her diet, but a lot of dogs (especially terriers!) eat unpleasant things given half a chance – particularly faeces (those of other dogs, horses, livestock etc), or dead and rotting things (often mice or birds found lying in the undergrowth when out on walks). Inevitably, eating anything like this will lead to bad breath.

2) Metabolic disease

We’re particularly talking about diabetes or kidney failure here – both of which can lead to halitosis. In diabetes, the body produces ketones as a fuel supply for the brain, which have a strong smell (with overtones of pear drops – however, not all humans have the gene required to be able to detect this); in kidney disease, the build up of nitrogen waste products in the blood may result in oral lesions and/or smelly breath. In both cases, you’d expect to see increased thirst and possibly weight loss, but the signs can be pretty subtle in the early stages….

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Could your cat have high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is a common problem for humans but did you know that cats can get it too? High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is actually quite common in older cats, especially those with other diseases such as kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. The symptoms can be quite subtle or mimic those of other diseases so many cases remain undetected for quite some time. If left untreated, however, hypertension can lead to significant secondary health problems, so it’s definitely worth testing for.

What exactly is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure occurs when the pressure within the blood vessels exceeds a certain threshold. Think of the hosepipe used to water your garden. If you turn the tap on too strongly, the water shoots out of the nozzle uncontrollably, damaging your flowers. The same is true for the body – organs like the brain and kidneys need blood to survive but if the blood pressure gets too high….

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Killing badgers: a necessary evil or the unwarranted destruction of a scapegoat?

Badgers are at the centre of one of the biggest rural controversies of our time.

On the one hand, many farmers  see them as disease-carrying pests that need to be controlled in the same way as urban dwellers control rats, with poison, traps or guns.

On the other hand, animal lovers see them as benign, harmless characters, going about their own business, and certainly not “guilty” enough to deserve death.

How can there be such a huge gulf between these opposing views? Is there a central “truth” that we can all agree about?

It is true that badgers can spread TB to cattle

There are some definitive facts. Bovine Tuberculosis (TB) is a complex disease which needs to be controlled to maintain the UK’s international animal health reputation. Control measures include improved on-farm hygiene, accurate identification of cattle, records of animal movement, regular testing of cattle by vets, and unfortunately for badgers, strict control of wildlife that can carry TB.

You see, there is no doubt that badgers can carry TB.

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Grazia: fashion news, beauty tips and terrible advice about breeding pets

Grazia is an Italian women’s magazine, first printed in 1938 when it was modelled on the USA magazine, Harper’s Bazaar. At the time, it was said to focus on traditional family values, such as cooking and child rearing. In recent years, the magazine has expanded its frontiers, now having over twenty international editions, including a British edition which started in 2005, and had a circulation of over 160000 by 2013.

So why is a vet writing a blog about a women’s magazine? Well, in the latest UK edition, Grazia has taken an ill-judged foray into the world of pet breeding. The magazine includes a feature on easy ways to earn extra income, with someone called “Ella”, said to be an estate agent, enthusing about the ease with which she makes extra cash by breeding her Ragdoll cat and Shih Tzu dogs. “Ella” seemed to give lip service to the idea of responsible breeding, saying “You want healthy animals or you get a bad rep. If you think Netmums is bad, you haven’t seen how bitchy pet forums are!”…

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Ask a vet online – is there a test for Leptospirosis?

Berry Wilkinson asked:

I was wondering if you can titre test for leptospirosis? Or is it only useful when you are testing sick dogs? Thanks.

Answer:

Hi Berry, thanks for your question about testing for Leptospirosis. To answer it, I’ll briefly discuss Leptospirosis as a disease, then talk about the different diagnostic techniques available. Finally, I’ll discuss vaccination and the implications for diagnosis.

What is Leptospirosis?

Leptospirosis (“Lepto”) is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. There are more than 300 strains (technically called serovars) of the bacteria. In the UK, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae and L. canicola used to be the most common, but since widespread vaccination against these has started, it is now thought that L. interrogans and L. kirschneri may be more important.

The disease is transmitted by body fluids of infected animals, including rats. The symptoms of Leptospirosis in dogs include:

Fever and sore muscles.
Loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhoea and dehydration.
It may cause kidney or liver failure
Sometimes the only symptom is sudden death.
Infected dogs may shed the bacteria in their urine for months or years without showing any clinical signs.
Leptospirosis is highly zoonotic – i.e. it is a high risk pathogen for infecting humans.
How is Leptospirosis diagnosed?

There are four methods to test for Leptospira in clinical samples, of which two are clinically useful. They are:…

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Ask a vet online – my dog has skin allergies, how do I help?

Question from Leona Poppleton:

my dog has skin allergies and so gets very dry skin and sometimes scabs that look quite painful is there anything that I can get or do to help this?

Answer: Scabby Skin

Hi Leona, thanks for your question about your dog’s skin. Allergies with skin symptoms are pretty common in dogs, so I’ll briefly discuss allergic disease, then go on to some of the many different treatment options.

What are skin allergies?

The phrase “skin allergies” refers to the itching, scratching and sore skin that allergic dogs get. However, it doesn’t have to be caused by something on the skin – e.g. food allergies (although quite rare in dogs) can lead to skin symptoms – so “allergic skin disease” is a better term.

Essentially what is happening is that the dog’s immune system misidentifies a harmless substance as a dangerous threat, and tries to attack it, causing soreness and itching. Allergic reactions may be triggered by a wide range of substances such as pollen, certain foods, fleas, mites, plants or even some washing powders. In a large number of cases, there’s no specific “allergy” involved, but the dog has a disease called Atopy (or Atopic Dermatitis), where the immune system reacts abnormally to a wide range of different stimuli. Atopy is partially genetic, and is more common in some breeds (e.g. West Highland White Terriers).

How is it diagnosed?

It is important to get allergic skin disease properly diagnosed by your vet because there are many contributing factors and different underlying problems….

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