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It may be getting cold outside, but it’s always flea season at home…

Daisy in her bedI see it almost every day, and constantly warn my clients about it, yet somehow even I wasn’t expecting it – yes, last week my very own cat came home with fleas. ‘How could this happen to me?’ I said, ‘I’m the vet!’ Well, the answer is very simple. I, like many of us, forgot to apply my cat’s flea preventative for the past few months. The weather was getting colder and she wasn’t going out as much, and with everything else going on the monthly treatment just slipped my mind. It sure was a wakeup call, however, to find the tell-tale rusty brown dirt on my cat’s favourite bed. And let’s face it, fleas are downright creepy. They eat blood and leave their faeces all over your pet, not to mention the fact that they can live in your carpets and even jump up and bite you. But at the same time, they’re pretty amazing little creatures, and successful ones at that. Did you know... ... there are more than 2000 species of fleas around the world? 63 of these are found in the UK, and 10 of these can be found in our own homes. The most common species seen however, is called Ctenocephalides felis, which although it is commonly called the cat flea can also be found on dogs. ... fleas are responsible for spreading the Bubonic Plague in people, and myxomatosis in rabbits? ... fleas can jump up to 150 times their own length, and consume 15 times their own body weight in blood daily? ... a female flea can lay about 50 eggs a day, and once these new fleas mature, they can each bite up to 400 times a day. Add all that up and you’ve got one miserable cat. How do I know if my cat has fleas? IndieThis sounds like a simple question but it can be a lot harder than you think to diagnose fleas in cats. Sure, sometimes you can see them scurrying around your cat’s fur but it isn’t always that easy. In fact, I have seen four patients with significant flea infestations in just the past week, and none of their owners were aware of the problem. Animals with fleas don’t always itch, and there are lots of other reasons why cats can be itchy. Also, cats can sometimes eat any fleas that they come across whilst grooming themselves, so you don’t always see them. The most reliable way to tell if your cat has fleas is to comb your cat well with a very fine-toothed comb (they make flea combs just for that purpose) over a piece of white paper or onto some cotton wool. This will result in the flea ‘dirt’ (which is actually their faeces) falling onto the white surface where you can see it. Then cover the specks with a bit of water and rub gently – if the dirt turns reddish-brown, it is flea dirt. If your cat has a lot of fleas, you may be able to see the dirt in their bedding or other favourite areas without even needing a comb. Of course, if you have any doubts, your vet would be happy to examine your cat for fleas and advise you as to the best course of action. Why is it important to prevent and treat fleas? • Adult fleas feed on blood, which in young kittens can result in weakness, anaemia, and even death. • Some animals are very allergic to flea bites, which makes them more likely to develop a bad skin infection as a result. Even one bite can set off a reaction, so you may not ever see the offending flea itself. So if your cat has an itchy skin infection but you can’t find any fleas, it’s probably worth treating them for fleas anyway. • Fleas carry tapeworms, which are spread to the cat when they eat the fleas during grooming. Therefore, if your cat has fleas, they should also be treated for tapeworms. • If all of that wasn’t bad enough, they can bite you too. Cat fleas won’t live on a human, but they won’t be able to resist a free meal... How do you treat a cat with fleas? Before going into battle against your cat’s fleas, it’s a good idea to understand a bit about their life cycle so you can plan the best attack. Adult fleas mostly live on the cat, but they can live up to two years and survive in the environment for up to six months. Once they find a host, they start eating and laying eggs. Both the eggs and the flea faeces fall off the animal, where the larvae hatch and feed on the flea dirt. The satisfied larvae then dig deep into carpeting or furniture, trying to escape the light and making themselves incredibly hard to kill. They then develop into pupae and build themselves a cocoon. The flea develops to adulthood inside the cocoon then waits until just the right moment to burst out and jump onto your unsuspecting cat by detecting changes in pressure, heat, noise or vibrations. The whole process takes about 15 days from egg to adulthood, but they can lie waiting in their cocoons for up to 2 years so modern conveniences like central heating can cause a resurgence in flea populations that you thought you had under control. As you can see, treating fleas doesn’t just involve putting a flea preventative on your pet (although that’s a very good place to start), you must treat the environment as well. 1. Ask your vet which flea medication is best for your pet and use this as directed. This will be either a long-acting insecticide to kill adult fleas or an insect development inhibitor to prevent eggs from maturing into adult fleas, or possibly both. These can come in the form of a spot-on liquid, spray, tablet, or injection. Collars and powders are not recommended for use in cats now that more effective and safer treatments are available. Flea treatments from the pet shop or internet may be just fine, but they also may not work as well and if used incorrectly, could seriously harm your cat. Be particularly careful never to give a flea product intended for dogs to your cat! If in doubt, ask your vet. best friends 2. Treat ALL animals in the house, provided there is a licensed flea treatment for that particular species. If you treat just one pet and not the others, the fleas will just go live on them instead. 3. Wash everything that you can. This particularly includes their bedding (and your bedding, if they have access to that too, eek!). 4. Hoover everything else. Frequently. This includes carpets, floorboards, skirting boards, sofas or other soft furnishings and any other little nooks and crannies where the young fleas may hide. 5. Once you’ve done your best to mechanically remove as many fleas as possible from the house, and if you still have a problem, go after the remaining residents chemically. There are several products on the market that can be used to safely treat fleas in your house, ask your vet for their recommendation. 6. Finally, be prepared to repeat these treatments if necessary, as flea eggs can hatch in waves that will need to be treated at different times. Be patient, be thorough, and be sure to follow all instructions carefully. As with most things, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. If even the thought of fleas makes you shiver or perhaps you don’t fancy the extra housework mentioned above, I’d suggest you take steps to prevent your cat from getting fleas in the first place. Use flea preventatives on a regular basis as directed by your vet, which often means once a month. Don’t be tempted to stop the preventative in the winter months, which may be OK in colder climates but doesn’t apply to most of the UK, especially thanks to central heating. Remembering to apply the preventatives regularly can be difficult, so many come with stickers that you can put on your calendars, don’t be ashamed to use them! And remember, even vets’ cats are at risk – fleas can strike any pet, at any time. Be ready! If you are concerned that your cat is itching or has fleas, check their symptoms using our Interactive Cat Symptom Guide to find out if you need to see your vet.
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Dental problems in our pet – an entirely preventable problem!

Did you know; two thirds of dogs and cats over the age of 3 years old will have some dental problems to some degree? It is an astonishing statistic and the numbers only get higher as the animals get older. However, the good news is that with some simple home care techniques and veterinary treatment the damage can be reversed or even prevented from happening in the first place. Dental problems in pets will vary in severity from a mild plaque and tartar staining to marked tartar build-up, gingivitis, bacterial infections, rotten tooth roots. Not only are these unsightly and a prime cause of ‘doggy breath’ they are also very painful and can be damaging to the body. Bacteria are able to thrive on the tartar and spread in the blood stream to other parts of the body, putting significant pressure on internal organs such as the kidneys, liver and heart. Signs your pet might have a problem include smelly breath, brown tartar build-up, which is especially common on the back teeth, and sore and swollen gums. One important thing to remember is that although dental problems can be very painful, they will rarely stop an animal from eating, so don’t assume that just because your pet’s appetite is normal, there isn’t a problem with their teeth. There are many things you can do at home to prevent dental problems in your pet and to reverse more mild changes. The best way of keeping a pet’s teeth clean is to brush them regularly; daily is best but every second or third day is adequate. Brushing is best introduced when a pet is young but older animals, with patience and perseverance, can be trained to accept it as well. It is very important to use a special pet toothpaste, human toothpastes irritate the stomach when they are swallowed (our pets don’t know to spit!) and the pet ones are meat flavoured which makes them more acceptable. For the best advice on how to brush your pet’s teeth, ask the nurses in our practice, they will be more than happy to help. Other methods of keeping our pet’s teeth clean include; special edible chews which scrape the plaque and tartar off the teeth and non-edible chews which do the same job but are better for those dogs with very powerful jaws or who seem to devour the edible ones in seconds! There are dental biscuits which can be added to your pet’s usual food, or given as treats, which again scrape the teeth clean as they are eaten. These are particularly useful for cats. Also available are powders which soften the tartar on the teeth, making the biscuits and chews more efficient. All of these are available in the practice and our staff will be happy to discuss with you which would best suit your pet. For some animals, by the time dental problems are diagnosed it is too late for home care to have an effect and they need their teeth sorting out under an anaesthetic. We make sure these procedures are very safe by using the most modern drugs and techniques and, for our more mature patients, offering blood tests and intravenous fluids to support them through the surgery. The advantages of these operations; clean teeth, the removal of rotten roots and a pain free mouth for your pet, generally far out-weigh any risks of the operation. Dental problems in our pets are common and can be very damaging to their health. However, they are easily diagnosed by a simple examination and easily treated by starting regular home care, which can prevent your pet needing surgical treatment or stop the problems recurring after they have had their teeth cleaned under an anaesthetic. Please phone your vet surgery for more information and to book a dental check for your pet.
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