Protect your dogs: lock up your Easter Eggs

Easter is a celebration of the Christian faith, but in our modern secular world, it’s known more for the celebration of eating chocolate, in the form of Easter eggs.

Chocolate is a popular treat for humans, but it’s also the most common poison to affect dogs: in the UK, there are nearly 2000 cases reported every year.
A small dog can die after eating a single Easter egg. The chemical in chocolate that gives humans a pleasant buzz – theobromine – has a highly toxic effect on dogs, rapidly poisoning the heart and brain.
A small chocolate indulgence that would be an enjoyable treat for a human can kill a dog, and the toxic dose is surprisingly small. Half a small bar of dark chocolate – around 50g (2 ounces) – is enough to end the life of a little terrier weighing 5kg. Milk chocolate is less dangerous, needing twice as much for the same effect. A standard Easter egg may weigh around 200g, which means that half an egg can be enough to kill a small dog.
Small dogs are much more at risk: the toxic effect is dose-dependent, so a 50kg German Shepherd would need to eat ten times as much chocolate as a 5kg terrier to be affected………..

Ask a vet online – ‘Can any vet perform a liver biopsy or should my dog be seen by an expert?’

Question from Anita Bates

Can any vet perform a liver biopsy or should Spud Theduff dog be seen by an expert?

Answer from Shanika Winters MRCVS, Online Vet

Hi Anita and thank you for your question regarding liver biopsy. I am assuming that your dog has already undergone some tests e.g. blood tests, x-rays and or exploratory surgery which have pointed in the direction of liver disease.

So what is a liver biopsy?

A biopsy is when a small sample of a body tissue is taken to be analysed. The liver is a large organ that is found in your pets abdomen (belly) just behind the chest. The liver has many functions which include processing and filtering all the nutrients absorbed from the gut after digestion, production of bile which helps with fat digestion, production of vitamins and storage of iron.

Why would your vet advise a liver biopsy?

A liver biopsy is advised to determine the exact type of disease that might be going on in your pets liver. As mentioned earlier liver biopsy is usually discussed after the findings of blood tests, x-rays or ultrasound scan which suggest liver disease. Diseases of the liver include infections, tumours, inflammation and storage disease to mention a few.

How is a liver biopsy performed?

There are two main ways of collecting a liver biopsy either by opening up the animals abdomen and cutting a small sample directly from the liver or using a special biopsy needle that is inserted through the skin under the direction of an ultrasound scan……..

The Spleen: What does it do and how will my dog manage if it has to be removed?

The spleen is one of those organs of the body that most people have heard of but many are uncertain where it is and what it actually does. Although it has several important functions, dogs can manage to live a normal life without a spleen if it has to be removed. The most common reasons for removal (splenectomy) are if the spleen has ruptured (usually after a road traffic accident), or if it develops a tumour. Both of these can lead to very sudden illness which needs fast diagnosis and treatment to save the dog’s life.
Biggles the Springer Spaniel has recently had his spleen removed and is recovering well. Although I am not his vet, I helped to care for him during his convalescence, and with his owner’s permission I would like to tell his story.

Biggles is a typically lively spaniel, who enjoyed a normal Sunday romping around with his companion. On the Monday morning, his owner found him collapsed and weak and had to rush him straight to his vets. After examination, blood tests and x-rays, his problem was diagnosed as a tumour of the spleen and Biggles was operated on the same day. Unfortunately his tumour was large and ulcerated which meant Biggles had lost a lot of blood from the circulation into his tummy, so he needed several days of intensive care including fluids by drip and drugs to prevent vomiting and infection.

After several days of hospitalisation at the vets, Biggles began to feel so much better that the challenge was to stop him from doing too much. After major surgery he had to take it very easy, which was hard for him. Very short walks on a lead, away from his boisterous friends, were all that he was allowed during his recovery, but now he is beginning to get back to normal gradually.

Biggles the Springer Spaniel has recently had his spleen removed and is recovering well. Although I am not his vet, I helped to care for him during his convalescence, and with his owner’s permission I would like to tell his story.

Biggles is a typically lively spaniel, who enjoyed a normal Sunday romping around with his companion. On the Monday morning, his owner found him collapsed and weak and had to rush him straight to his vets. After examination, blood tests and x-rays, his problem was diagnosed as a tumour of the spleen and Biggles was operated on the same day. Unfortunately his tumour was large and ulcerated which meant Biggles had lost a lot of blood from the circulation into his tummy, so he needed several days of intensive care including fluids by drip and drugs to prevent vomiting and infection……….

Ask a Vet Online – ‘I have got 2 staffies 1 is afraid to go out at night even on a lead. How can I help him?’

Question from Anji Bradley

I have got 2 staffies 1 is afraid to go out at night even on a lead. How can I help him.He stopped going out after he heard a car back-fire and he thought it was a firework.

Answer from Shanika Winters MRCVS, Online Vet

Hi Anji, thank you for your question about your dog’s fear of going out at night. What you are describing would fit with being a noise phobia.

What is a noise phobia?

Noise phobia is a fear response which is triggered when a particular sound is heard, in this case banging sounds similar to those produced by fireworks. Dogs are intelligent animals and soon make associations to a stimulus, in this case the stimulus is a sound and the response associated with it is a reluctance to go out for walks in the night for fear of hearing the scary sound.

From what you have described I have assumed that your dog already was fearful of fireworks prior to hearing the car back-fire. If this is the case then hopefully the following will be useful information.

How can I help my dog with his noise phobia?

In order to deal with a noise phobia you will need the help of your vet or someone trained in dog behaviour and plenty of patience.

Puppy Love! How to Look After your New Puppy

Puppy Love!

There are few things more exciting than bringing home a new puppy. No matter how big they eventually get, they are all cute bundles of fluff with wobbly legs and wagging tails in the beginning! The experiences and care a puppy receives in it’s early weeks have a massive impact on the rest of it’s life & behaviour, and it’s your job as their owner to ensure they grow up into happy, healthy and well adjusted individuals.

A pup’s introduction to the world around them begins from the moment they are born. The bitch and litter must live in the home, surrounded by the sights, sounds and smells of family life; not in a shed or outhouse. Once they become more independent they should be handled regularly, allowed to meet different people, given a variety of toys and plenty of opportunities to play and explore. Finally, and most importantly, they should not leave the breeder until they are 8 weeks old. Although they will have been quite independent for some time by this age, they will still be learning vital social skills and doggy behaviour from their mum and littermates. A good breeder will understand all this and ensure their pups have the best start. They will also, if they are breeding pedigrees, have completed all the relevant health tests on the parents & have registered the litter with the Kennel Club at birth, meaning you will be given all the paperwork when you collect them.

Once you have your new pup home, allow them a couple of days to settle in before inviting everyone round to meet them! Ask the breeder what they were feeding and keep this the same for a week, after which you can change their diet but make sure it is good quality puppy food. This is also the time to instill good sleeping habits. It might be cute having a little pup curled up in bed with you but it won’t be so nice when they are fully grow and spent the day splashing in puddles in the park! Most pups will cry when they are left alone for the first few nights but they soon learn to settle and it is very important dogs learn to be on their own, otherwise they can develop serious problems such as separation anxiety. I am a big fan of using crates for young pups. You can shut them in at night and when you go out; the pup will feel safe and secure in the small, enclosed space and you know they are safe. Leave the door open when you are at home and then they can take themselves off to bed when they feel tired.

Ask a Vet Online – ‘I have a border collie he has progressive retinal atrophy and now he has a cateract, is there anything that can be done for him?’

Question from Anne Wood

I have a border collie 5 years old. Hes a very frightened dog but he is completly blind in 1 eye and partly blind in the other the vet told me it was progressive retinal atrophy and now he has a cateract on top of his blind eye, is there anything that can be done for him please and thank you for taking the time to read this.

Answer from Shanika Online Vet

Hi Anne, thank you for your question regarding your dog’s eyes and behaviour.

So what is progressive retinal atrophy (PRA)?

As the name suggests it is a condition where there is gradual degeneration of the retina (layer lining the back of the eye). PRA is usually an inherited condition and sadly there is no cure for it, however on the positive side it rarely causes pain. There is no treatment for PRA at present, there have been some trials of using antioxidants to slow down the degenerative process but the results of this are as of yet inconclusive.

Cataracts are a common finding along with PRA; a cataract is cloudiness in the lens of the eye. The loss of vision caused by the PRA itself means that cataract surgery is rarely advised as there will not be much improvement to vision as a result of the surgery.

How would I know that my dog has PRA and how is it diagnosed?

Owners usually notice a loss of vision in the pet, most noticeable in low light conditions, their pets pupils may appear more dilated with an increased glow/shine (tapetal reflex) from the back of the eye.

A diagnosis is usually made when your vet or ophthalmologist examines your dog’s eyes and notices the damage to the retina.

What can I do for my dog with PRA?

Sadly there is no treatment for PRA itself but as it is a painless condition then it is more a case of trying to help your dog to adjust to his gradual loss of vision. Generally the other senses smell, hearing, touch and taste increase to try and compensate for the one that is deteriorating.

You can take steps to make your home environment easier for your dog with poor or no vision to get around. Keep large pieces of furniture in the same place, use stair gates to block off dangerous areas, when out and about use lots of vocal and physical clues to let your dog know where you are and to provide reassurance.

Dogs are incredibly resilient animals and adjust very well to changes especially when they are gradual. I hope that this answer has helped you to understand a little bit about PRA and how both you and your dog can still lead a happy life together………

Ask a Vet Online – ‘My yorkie has problems with her front dew claws they split so she is constantly licking her paw’

Question from Sharon Barrett
I have a yorkie she has problems with her front dew claws they seem to split so she is constantly licking her paw is there anything I van do to ease her discomfort please? Thank you, her brother also has the same problem they will be 5yrs in April… Thank you.x

Answer from Shanika Online Vet

Hi Sharon, thank you for your question about your dog’s dew claws. In order to ease your dog’s discomfort caused by the splitting dew claws it is important to understand what dew claws are and why they are splitting.

What is a dew claw?

The dew claws are small toes in the position in which we have our thumbs, they are considered to be a ‘vestigial digit’ in the dog. Vestigial refers to the fact that dew claws are usually much smaller than the other toes and now serve very little function, some people do however see their pets using their dew claws to help grip objects. Dew claws can be found on both front and back legs but are more common on the front legs. Not all dogs have dew claws and some may have had them removed when very young.

Why is the dew claw splitting?

A claw or nail is formed by the tissue in the nail bed, any damage or disease of the nail bed itself can lead to a weak claw which is prone to splitting. Diseases that can affect the nail bed include bacterial or fungal infections and traumatic damage.

Overgrown claws and or weak claws are much more prone to catching on things, cracking and splitting. The nail bed is a very sensitive structure with a good blood supply, so damaged claws can cause a great deal of discomfort to your pet and may bleed.

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