Dog Vaccinations: are they really necessary?

Tomorrow is World Veterinary Day (WVD), an annual event that highlights the role of veterinary profession around the world. This year’s theme is the importance of vaccination to animal health. Over the past two hundred years, scientists have created vaccines that have prevented – and, in some cases, eradicated – diseases in humans and animals.

Yet if you talk to pet owners online, the question of the need to vaccinate is one that keeps cropping up. People worry that vaccines may even be causing illnesses, and sadly, they sometimes feel that they cannot trust the advice from their vet, because the vet benefits financially from the sale of the vaccine.

There is a danger here that pet owners may stop vaccinating their pets, and if they do, it’s likely that they will get away with doing so for a number of years. Vaccines have caused serious illnesses to become rare, so that there may not be an immediate threat to most pets. The problem is that if people choose not to vaccinate, there will be a growing population of unprotected animals that are vulnerable to viral disease if an epidemic does occur…..

Horses and money – is it really either/or?

With the new financial year, and the recent bad weather, everyone involved in and working with horses is trying to make money go a bit further. Among other issues, the cost of medicines is rising every month (many drugs have seen their manufacturers put the price up 10 or 15% in the last few months), and feed bills are rising due to poor cereal harvests.

As a result, I’ve put together a list of “top tips” for saving money in the coming year.

Firstly, 5 things to do…

1) Make sure you worm smart - which doesn’t necessarily mean often! Many owners still worm religiously every 6-8 weeks; however, recent studies have shown about that 80% of the worms are in 20% of the horses. If your horse doesn’t have a high worm burden, it may be a waste of money pouring expensive wormers down him every other month. In addition, the more wormers we use, the higher the risk of worm resistance – there has been recognised round- or redworm resistance to every active ingredient available in the UK, so the less we use them, the longer they’ll be effective.

The way I like to recommend people go forward is to use Worm Egg Counts – your vet will be able to do these, or will have a lab they send them away to. The test simply takes a faeces sample and counts the worm eggs in it, giving you a good estimate of the number of worms in the horse. Remember, this test can only be done in the warmer months (the worms don’t lay eggs in the winter!), and it only tests for nematodes (round and redworms). To test for tapeworms, your vet will need to take a blood sample, but this usually only needs doing once or at most twice a year.

Depending on the test results, your vet will be able to advise you on the best worming strategy, and if you’ve got a low burden, it may not be necessary to worm at all, as long as your pasture management (poo-picking etc) is decent. I’ve seen horses wormed every month come back with such low counts that we stopped worming completely and, because they weren’t mixing with lots of other horses, they were still worm free a year later. That said, I’ve also seen horses that really do need that regular dose, so it does depend on the yard, the herd and the individual horse.

2) Consider warming up with unaffiliated competitions – and beware direct debits! Skip past this one if you’re not competing – but if you are….

Ask a vet online- “My 9 year old GSD has a black disk like cataract in one eye. Can it be removed safely. Would this be expensive to remove? Is this usually done by my vet or a specialist eye vet?”

Question from David Keown
My 9 year old GSD has a black disk like cataract in one eye. Can it be removed safely and what’s the prognosis for a good recovery. Would this be expensive to remove? Is this usually done by my vet or a specialist eye vet? Thanks.

Answer from Shanika Williams MRCVS online vet

Hi David, thank you for your question about the black disc in your GSD’s eye (German shepherd dog).

Firstly I will describe what a cataract is; I do not think that your dog has a cataract but an iris cyst.

A cataract is an area of discolouration in the lens of the eye, the lens sits in the middle of the eye and is usually colourless and clear, it sits just behind the iris (coloured part of the eye). Usually a cataract can only be seen without the use of specialist equipment if it is very large or the lens has dropped out of its correct position and has fallen into the front chamber of the eye.

So what is the black disc?

The black disc that you are describing in your GSD’s eye is most likely to be an iris cyst. Iris cysts are fluid filled black discs of varying size that bud off from another part of the eye. They vary in size (usually few millimetres in diameter) and can move around or are fixed in position; they are usually found at the front bottom half of the eye. I have personal experience of this condition as our family GSD had several mobile iris cysts.

Does my pet need any treatment?

Ask a vet online – “My dog is drinking a lot, and seems to be starving to the point of raiding my Shopping bag. She has Arthrities and her back end seems to be wobbly.”

Question from Gurnos Tenants Residents

My dog is 14 and is drinking a lot, and seems to be starving to the point of raiding my Shopping bag, something she has never done before. She has Arthrities and sometimes her back end seems to be wobbly.

Answer from Shanika Winters MRCVS online vet

Thank you for your interesting question which has four parts, I will discuss one at a time.

Your dog is drinking a lot.

The first thing to do when you have noticed that your pet is drinking more is to work out the actual amount of water being drunk. This is most easily done by measuring out how much water you put into the water bowl, also how much is left each time you change the water. It is best to work out how much your pet is drinking over a few days as this will give an average amount per day taking into account differences on each day. We usually consider a dog to be drinking too much if water intake is more than 100ml/kg/day that would work out as around 2L for a 20kg dog (a medium sized dog). So when you discuss your pet’s water intake with your vet they will want to know the amount your pet drinks a day, its weight and if there have been any changes to your pet’s diet. Dry food diets tend to lead to pets drinking more water than wet food (tins or pouches).

Your vet will also want to know if your pet is passing urine as normal or if this has changed in amount or frequency, often it is helpful to collect a sample of urine in a clean container and take this to your vet for analysis.

Increased drinking is called polydipsia (PD) and can be an indication many conditions including kidney disease, infection, hormone imbalances and diabetes. It is really important to discuss any other symptoms your pet is showing with your vet so that the most appropriate urine and blood tests can be performed to find out the cause of your pets PD.

Your dog is raiding your shopping bags.

When a pet has an increased hunger we call this polyphagia (PP). It is normal for dogs to eat more food when their energy needs go up e.g. when the weather is cold, if they are more active than usual or during the later stages of pregnancy or lactation (milk production). So provided there is no obvious reason for your pet to be eating more this is definitely something worth discussing with your vet.

Ideally if your pet is weighed regularly and records have been kept of this any changes will help to make a diagnosis as to what is causing your pets PP. Some of the conditions mentioned for PD can also lead to PP……..

More Useful Information

Examining your pet

Simple ways to check the health of your pet. Vets use these techniques as part of their clinical examiniation.

Medicating your pet

Arming you with the same simple techniques for stress free pill giving.

Worming & Flea Treatment

Information and advice in treating your pet for worms and fleas.