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Ask a vet online – Which are the symptoms of liver shunts in yorkies? My 4 years yorkie changed his behaviour in the last year

Question from Ma Ma Which are the symptoms of liver shunts in yorkies? My 4 years yorkie changed his behaviour in the last year, his afraid of a lot of things, is agressive with other dogs and looks quite tired all the time. Can be because of a health problem?? I thought is because we have a baby and we moved in a new house. Thank u Answer from Shanika Winters (online vet) Thank you for your question about liver shunts and the changes to your dog’s behaviour. It is possible that moving home and a new baby have had an effect on your dog’s behaviour but the symptoms you have listed are also found in cases of liver shunts. What is a liver shunt? Porto systemic shunt (PSS) commonly called a liver shunt is a condition where the blood vessels of the liver are abnormal; it is seen in dogs and cats. Miniature schnauzers and Yorkshire terriers are two breeds in which PSS seem to be found more often. The liver is a large organ found in the abdomen (belly) which processes and filters the products absorbed after food has been digested. The liver also produces vitamins, blood clotting factors and bile. The blood full of nutrient and bacteria from the digestive system normally passes to the liver in the hepatic portal vein (large blood vessel) in cases of PSS the blood bypasses the liver via one or several vessels either inside (intrahepatic) or outside (extra hepatic) of the liver. The result of the PSS is that bacteria, unprocessed chemicals including ammonia stay in the blood and travel around the body leading to behavioural changes and poor body condition. PSS can be congenital (present from birth) or acquired which occurs later in life. The symptoms are usually seen by 6 months of age and are accompanied by poor body condition and failure to gain weight. What are the symptoms of PSS? Polydipsia increased drinking Polyuria increase urination Anorexia decreased appetite Depression quiet and uninterested in things Lethargy less active than usual Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) a collection of neurological signs associated with liver disease Ataxia lack of coordination when moving Intermittent weakness weakness often within a few hours after eating a protein rich meal Head pressing pushing head into corners of a wall or against furniture Circling, Disorientation, Pacing, Altered behaviour, Seizures and Coma. How is PSS diagnosed? A detailed history of your pet’s behaviour, symptoms and general body condition will lead your vet to suspect liver disease and or PSS. Diagnostic tests start with routine blood tests, x-rays and ultrasound scans. If the test results point towards a liver problem the more specific liver function blood tests and or contrast imaging techniques can be used to detect the exact cause of the liver disease and where it is. How is PSS treated? PSS is treated medically in most cases but some cases can be treated surgically. Surgical treatment of PSS is when the shunt blood vessel is tied off so that blood is forced to pass via the liver again where it can perform its processing and filtering functions. Surgical treatment of PSS is usually carried out by a specialist vet after extensive diagnostic work up to locate the shunt vessels. Medical management can help to keep the symptoms under control for a few years but does not cure the condition. Medical treatment of PSS Low protein diet, this is to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood produced from the breakdown and digestion of protein. High levels of blood ammonia contribute to the signs of HE as listed. Lactulose can be given to reduce ammonia levels. Antibiotics are used to combat the increased levels of bacteria present in the blood and therefore increased risk of infections. Neutraceuticals are food additives that are thought to help in cases of liver disease these have not been proven to be beneficial and therefore only use after discussion with your vet. I hope that this answer has helped you and that a diagnosis and treatment plan is put into place to help your dog soon. Shanika Winter MRCVS (Online Vet)
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So You Want To Be A Vet? – Getting into vet school and beyond

I did and I still do! Being a vet is a brilliant job; every day is different. I get to work with great people and use the skills I worked hard to gain to help animals and solve their problems. However, it is also involves long hours, regular challenges, with both pets and people, and it can be very stressful. The first hurdle to being a vet is actually getting into vet school and with an average of nine applicants for every place, it is one of the most competitive university courses there is. The standard of students is always extremely high and I know the selectors face a very difficult task in picking out those best suited for a career in veterinary medicine. First and foremost, you must get the right grades at both GCSE and A Level. Without these you won’t even be considered and rightly so; academically the vet course is tough. However, as well as being a geek (!), you also need to have excellent people skills, good practical skills and, I believe, bags of common sense. You can help to show you have these by ensuring your extracurricular activities are relevant and varied; music, sports, volunteering and Duke of Edinburgh all regularly appear on successful candidates applications. The other vital piece of the puzzle is completing a diverse range of work experience to demonstrate you really understand the veterinary industry. Trust me, it’s not all cuddling cute animals! The most obvious place to start is in a vet clinic but this can be difficult. Most practices receive a large number of requests but do persevere. You should also spend some time on farms getting your hands dirty. Helping out at milking time and lambing is not glamorous but will be rewarding & very useful. To stand out from the crowd you could also consider seeing other aspects of veterinary work such as zoos and exotic pets, abattoirs (all of which need a vet on the premises while they are operating) and scientific laboratories. Many vets are involved in research and during the course you will spend quite a bit of time in the lab! Wanting to be a vet for most people is a passion and very few probably give much thought to what working as a vet is actually like. It is a cliche to say it is more a way of life than a job but veterinary is certainly not 9-5! Many positions will include on call, meaning you will be working in the night and often the next day as well. A great deal of veterinary medicine, particularly for the farm and horse vets, is done alone, which can be stressful and even the small animal vets in a clinic will be expected to make their own decisions from day one and perform surgery single handedly. This is difficult when you first start and although it gets easier, it is always a challenge! It is also important to consider the salary you are likely to earn. This is often something students don’t consider important but it soon becomes so when you have a mortgage to pay and a family to support! As a vet you will always be paid a good wage but it is very much less than similarly qualified professionals. Trust me, you soon get tired of clients thinking you earn as much as a doctor when it is more likely to be a third of that! Being a vet is wonderful and I feel very fortunate to be in my dream job. However, I confess when I set my heart on it I gave very little thought to the practicalities of life with long hours, on-call, demanding owners and difficult cases. Although, to be honest, even if I had it wouldn’t have changed my mind! If you are sure you want to be a vet; have the drive, intelligence and I haven’t put you off (!), then my advice is work hard, go for it and maybe one day, I’ll see you in theatre! Cat Henstridge BVSc MRCVS - Read more of her blogs at catthevet.com
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Pedigree Dogs Exposed: five years on, do dogs suffer less?

It's hard to believe that it's already five years since the BBC documentary, Pedigree Dogs Exposed, was first broadcast. The programme stirred up unprecedented controversy about the practice of breeding and showing pedigree dogs in the UK. In the aftermath, the BBC cancelled its long standing high profile coverage of Crufts, and major sponsors backed out of supporting the Kennel Club's flagship event. Promises were made that "things would change", investigating committees were set up and reports were issued.

Five years is a significant period of time, so it's an appropriate benchmark to pause, and to ask the question: are things better than they were? After all the talk, have things improved?

Perhaps predictably, the answer to this question depends on one's perspective.

Jemima Harrison, the producer of the documentary, has continued to campaign for the Kennel Club to make more changes, more rapidly. She is clear about her opinion: “Five years on from Pedigree Dogs Exposed, the Kennel Club is still in denial about the extent of the problems. It is unethical to continue to breed dogs like Pugs and Bulldogs which have such flat faces that they cannot breathe – and yet the Kennel Club registers these breeds in their growing thousands and these dogs continue to be celebrated at Kennel Club shows. The Kennel Club has done too little to tackle the suffering these and many other breeds endure, despite an increasing amount of science which both articulates the issues and offers solutions. The dogs continue to pay a huge price.”

The RSPCA seems to take a more conciliatory stance, acknowledging the progress made by the Kennel Club and dog breeders, including the development of DNA and health screening tests for hereditary diseases and the introduction of veterinary checks on ‘high profile’ breeds but the charity still believes that much more should have been done. The charity is running a "Born To Suffer campaign and petition", calling for breed standards to be changed even more than they have been to date, "so that they prioritise the health, welfare and temperament of a dog over its looks."

Meanwhile the Kennel Club itself, on its own website, disagrees, maintaining that "for many years, the Kennel Club has devoted itself to improving the health and welfare of dogs and is committed to ensuring that every dog's life is as healthy and happy as it can possibly be." Furthermore, "the Kennel Club has introduced a large number of initiatives to help improve the lives of thousands of dogs and continues to develop new programmes and educational resources to progress dog health in the future."

Is it possible to find a middle ground viewpoint? The Advisory Council on the Welfare Issues of Dog Breeding should surely be listened to: this independent group was set up specifically to analyse the issues brought to the fore by Pedigree Dogs Exposed. The Advisory Council has released a statement that is worth reading, giving a detailed update of progress that has been made, acknowledging that while some of the RSPCA's "wish list" should be addressed, others ( such as the RSPCA's call for a ban on registration of dogs born from a dam’s second caesarean) would be a step too far.

By the way, I don't want to accuse Jemima Harrison of being over-critical of the Kennel Club: in  a recent blog post she even acknowledges that it could be "half-true" that the Kennel Club is now seen "as part of the solution". She does give credit when she believes credit is due. In her latest blog post, published this week, Jemima compares the situation in the UK with that in Germany, where the second anniversary has just taken place of the airing of the German equivalent of Pedigree Dogs Exposed. She explains that the German programme "did not provoke the reform in Germany that Pedigree Dogs Exposed triggered here in the UK", and that the follow up programme, broadcast last week, "holds up the UK Kennel Club as something of an exemplar".

So while it would be very wrong to be complacent, and while the world of pedigree dogs may sometimes still seem bleak in the UK, it's perhaps at least somewhat reassuring to reflect that it could be much, much worse.

http://www.dogadvisorycouncil.com/resources/comment%20on%20RSPCA%20report.pdf

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