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Sometimes it’s not teeth – other causes of bad breath in pets.

What can cause bad breath?

Bad breath, or halitosis, is very common in dogs and cats; however, there are a wide range of possible causes. Some are simple to treat; others less so – but bad breath is almost always symptoms of an underlying problem.

There is one, harmless cause of halitosis – eating something rotten or smelly (much more common in dogs than cats)! Some dogs love eating faeces or rotting food; this may be habit, or greed – but in a small percentage of cases is due to a condition called pica. This is when the animal will eat pretty much anything, whether or not it is actually food-like, and may be due to mineral or vitamin deficiencies or certain brain diseases. In most cases, however, eating rotting or smelly things isn’t due to a disease condition (although it may well lead to a nasty episode of vomiting and diarrhoea!).

Metabolic diseases can also cause bad breath – especially diabetes and kidney failure. These conditions are both associated with changes in urination and drinking, and often weight loss. If untreated, both are potentially fatal. In diabetes, the breath may smell sweet (because of the excess sugar in the bloodstream); sour (because of increased bacterial growth, as the bacteria feed on the sugar); or musty (as yeasts grow in the mouth). In kidney failure, the breath may smell metallic (due to a build-up of toxins and waste products that the kidneys aren’t filtering).

Diseases of the respiratory tract such as sinusitis, nasal infections, and nasal tumours may also lead to bad breath…

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Ask A Vet Online – My cat is itchy with watering eyes…

Ellie Masters asked:

My cat is scratching above his eyes and losing fur, sometimes his eyes water too. this happened earlier in the summer he went through testing nothing found, he’s treated with stronghold so no fleas etc. All help appreciated as at wits end now

Reply:

Hi again Ellie, thanks for your question!

To answer it, I’m going to discuss the possible causes, then the investigations available to demonstrate them, and then finally possible treatment options.

What possible causes are there?

Given that he’s scratching the area around his eyes, losing fur and has watery eyes, there are three immediate possibilities that spring to mind.

The first is a primary eye disease – conjunctivitis, a corneal ulcer, chlamydia or calicivirus infection are probably the four conditions I’d be wanting to rule out. In this situation, the hair loss is because of his constant rubbing at his sore eyes.

The second possibility is that it is a skin disease, manifesting most dramatically on his head above his eyes. This may sound unlikely, but many cats suffer from a condition called miliary dermatitis, where the skin becomes very itchy and forms tiny red scabs or bumps – often it is focussed above the eyes and in front of the ears, although along the back is also a possibility. This is not a diagnosis, but a symptom – and is most commonly associated with parasites, allergies, or skin infections.

The third option is a condition that affects both the skin and the eyes – classically, this would be a more general allergy of some sort. Allergies in cats are less well understood than in dogs, however, food allergies are thought to be the second most common cause of itching in cats (after fleas and other parasites). Other possibilities would include auto-immune disease, where the immune system starts attacking healthy tissues.

So, how do you tell which it is?…

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Ask A Vet Online – Help! The fleas are revolting…

Anne Stafferton asked:

This one is a bit boring really I’ve spent hundreds of pounds on flea stuff only for it not to work I breed cats so it’s a nightmare I’m now combing them all every day to get fleas out any suggestions on what really really works

Answer:

Hi Anne, thanks for your question about fleas in cats. I know exactly what you mean – they can be a real nightmare to get under control! I’m going to answer your question by (briefly!) discussing the flea life-cycle and how it can be broken, and then talking about the specific treatments that are available. As a warning, on a blog like this I am legally obliged to use the generic names for all the drugs and medicines (otherwise I would get nasty letters from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate, the government department who regulate advertising of veterinary medicines). You can, however, look up any of the generic names for the active substances and “translate” them into brand names on the VMD’s Product Information Database.

What are fleas?

Fleas are a group of obligate ectoparasites – this means that they live on the outside of other animals, and cannot survive in any other way but by sucking the blood of their hosts. Once an adult flea lays her eggs, they fall onto the floor, the carpet, and into the cat’s bedding. Here they hatch into larvae, which live, hidden deep in the fabric, in the dust, and in cracks in floorboards etc.

Fear of fireworks can affect cats as well as dogs: how do we know, and what can we do to help them?

In the veterinary blogging world, there are key seasonal topics that come up every year: hazards around the home at Christmas, chocolate poisoning at Easter, heat stroke in summer and, of course, the fear of fireworks at Halloween/ Guy Fawkes Day. It can be a challenge to come up with a new angle every year: it could be tempting to find an old article, re-jig it and re-phrase it, and the job is done. After all if you plagiarise yourself, is there anything wrong with that?

A better answer, however, is to seek out a completely new angle. So with the help of the Wikivet archives, instead of writing a repeat blog of what to do with dogs that are terrified of fireworks, here’s an alternative: how to help cats cope with fear of fireworks….

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Oscar, the grumpy cat who needed twice daily injections to treat his diabetes

Oscar, a ten year old cat, had started to lose weight, despite the fact that he was eating well. His coat had begun to look bedraggled, as if he was not grooming himself as much as usual. His owner had noticed him visiting his water bowl more frequently, and she had needed to fill up the bowl every day, rather than every three days.

When I examined him it was clear that Oscar had lost a significant amount of weight. His ribs were prominent, and I could feel the sharp tips of the bones of his back. When I weighed him, I discovered that he had lost a kilogram since his previous visit.

Physically, I could find no obvious cause of a problem, so I decided that a blood profile was needed…

Wikivet blog: oral hygiene – the key to a healthy mouth in pets

It’s well known that regular home care of pets’ teeth is the only way to ensure optimal dental health, but it’s also well known that most owners find this challenging. Dental experts have identified that there are two methods of home care, depending on an owner’s ability to get involved: active and passive.

Brushing your pet’s teeth

a) Active home care is “hands-on” where the pet owner is physically involved with removing plaque and maintaining oral hygiene. Tooth brushing and applying anti-plaque agents directly into the mouth fit into this category. Active home care is the ideal answer, but it isn’t always easy. It’s known as the “gold standard” of preventive dental care….

How to help stressed-out cats whose owners think they are “behaving badly”

One of the challenges for veterinary surgeons working in the media is that is that they are often asked about one specific patient, with a particular problem. While it’s helpful for the individual owner to discuss their own pet, it can be less enthralling for other readers.

Here are a couple of examples:

Ginger, a 5 year old neutered tom cat, had started urinating in his owner’s bathtub, and occasionally in the sink downstairs. He had always been a “good” cat, going out through the cat flap to do his business. Why would he change like this?
Harry, a two year old neutered male tabby cat, had recently started to suffer from injuries caused by cat fights. His owner…

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Training dogs: can old dogs learn tricks? And what about residential “boot camps” for dogs?

The early autumn is a bit like a mini-New Year. The summer has ended, schools have gone back, and the term-time routines start again. It can be a great time to start new projects, and for many dog owners, that can include tackling the complicated issue of training their pet. Many dog owners have pets with bad habits that they want to change.

Dogs behave in response to the way that their owners treat them. A dog will only beg from the table at mealtime if her owner has taught her to do this by feeding titbits in the past. A dog will only jump up onto the settee if she has been allowed to do this by her owner. It then follows that it is possible to re-train dogs by changing the way we behave towards them. A dog can be re-trained at any age, by using modern dog training methods.

Anybody can set themselves up to be a dog trainer, and so there’s a wide variety of styles and standards in the dog training world. Some have had formal instruction in dog training. Some have even passed exams. Others are self-taught. It’s best to choose trainers who have been taught the latest techniques, and who continue to make an effort to keep themselves up to date….

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Kittens with passengers: ear mites

When a litter of rescued kittens were brought to see me recently, a careful examination of their ears was an important part of the check-up. I introduced the tip ofthe auroscope into each kitten’s ear, and by looking through the instrument I was able to see a magnified view of each ear canal. In normal animals, the pale blue-grey of the eardrum itself can often be seen. However, in these kittens, I could hardly see any normal ear canal. My view was blocked completely by thick, brown, sticky earwax. The cause of the excessive ear wax could be seen very clearly. Tiny white wriggling insect-like creatures could be seen swarming around the inside of each ear. The kittens were infected with ear mites.

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Could your cat have high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is a common problem for humans but did you know that cats can get it too? High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is actually quite common in older cats, especially those with other diseases such as kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. The symptoms can be quite subtle or mimic those of other diseases so many cases remain undetected for quite some time. If left untreated, however, hypertension can lead to significant secondary health problems, so it’s definitely worth testing for.

What exactly is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure occurs when the pressure within the blood vessels exceeds a certain threshold. Think of the hosepipe used to water your garden. If you turn the tap on too strongly, the water shoots out of the nozzle uncontrollably, damaging your flowers. The same is true for the body – organs like the brain and kidneys need blood to survive but if the blood pressure gets too high….

More Useful Information

Examining your pet

Simple ways to check the health of your pet. Vets use these techniques as part of their clinical examiniation.

Medicating your pet

Arming you with the same simple techniques for stress free pill giving.

Worming & Flea Treatment

Information and advice in treating your pet for worms and fleas.