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Why do dogs wag their tails?

There are few things more cheering than the sight of a wagging tail but what is your dog actually trying to tell you? Certainly, it can indicate happiness but also a lot of other things as well!
A tail held high and vigorously wagged from side to side indicates its owner is happy and ready to play.

A tail held level with the body and wagged more slowly shows that the dog is in a situation where they are not quite sure what is going on but are interested and paying attention.

A tail held low and wagging only a little or twitching, is often showing that the dog is feeling threatened and you should…

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Babesiosis – a new arrival to the UK

On 16th March this year, newspapers and news feeds across the UK broke the news that a new “deadly tick-borne disease” had been diagnosed in dogs in Kent. The disease turned out to be babesiosis – a parasite of the red blood cells, similar in many ways to malaria, transmitted by tick bites. The condition has now, apparently, reached the UK for the first time. So, how seriously should we take the stories, and are they accurate?

Is this a new disease?

Not at all – it has been fairly common in continental Europe and across the world for many years; as an island, the UK has been lucky enough to avoid it (until now). There have, however, been “mini-outbreaks” before in the UK, so it’s not something we’ve never seen before. The difference is that the previous outbreaks have been in dogs who had travelled to Europe on the PETS Passport Scheme; the new outbreak appears to be “native” to the UK, with infected ticks surviving in the environment….

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Crufts – the best and worst of the dog world?

Crufts starts today – the World’s Largest Dog Show – an annual dog-fest that used to be seen as a “best of British” institution, but which has become controversial in recent years. This year, three different viewpoints have been loudly expressed.

First, the Kennel Club , which is “dedicated to protecting and promoting the health and welfare of all dogs”, predictably stressing the many initiatives taken to promote good health in pedigree dogs. And there’s no doubt that innovations like the Mate Select programme, the Online Kennel Club Academy  to provide education for breeders and judges, the recently released 2014 Breed Health Survey, a range of new DNA tests and other initiatives represent useful steps forwards towards improving pedigree dog health….

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Sometimes it’s not teeth – other causes of bad breath in pets.

What can cause bad breath?

Bad breath, or halitosis, is very common in dogs and cats; however, there are a wide range of possible causes. Some are simple to treat; others less so – but bad breath is almost always symptoms of an underlying problem.

There is one, harmless cause of halitosis – eating something rotten or smelly (much more common in dogs than cats)! Some dogs love eating faeces or rotting food; this may be habit, or greed – but in a small percentage of cases is due to a condition called pica. This is when the animal will eat pretty much anything, whether or not it is actually food-like, and may be due to mineral or vitamin deficiencies or certain brain diseases. In most cases, however, eating rotting or smelly things isn’t due to a disease condition (although it may well lead to a nasty episode of vomiting and diarrhoea!).

Metabolic diseases can also cause bad breath – especially diabetes and kidney failure. These conditions are both associated with changes in urination and drinking, and often weight loss. If untreated, both are potentially fatal. In diabetes, the breath may smell sweet (because of the excess sugar in the bloodstream); sour (because of increased bacterial growth, as the bacteria feed on the sugar); or musty (as yeasts grow in the mouth). In kidney failure, the breath may smell metallic (due to a build-up of toxins and waste products that the kidneys aren’t filtering).

Diseases of the respiratory tract such as sinusitis, nasal infections, and nasal tumours may also lead to bad breath…

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Ask A Vet Online – Help, I’ve got a stuffy-nosed Pug!

Natalie Kent asked:

My 8 year old pug has just been diagnosed with Pseudomonas in his nose. He’s been having problems with his nose for about a year, discharge, blocked up etc. Vet did a nose swab and found this bacteria. He’s been on marbocyl antibiotics for 2 weeks and it’s not completely gone away, still a bit of discharge and a bit stuffy but vet refuses to give any more tablets, what else would you suggest?

Reply:

Hi Natalie, thanks for your question. Because of the conformation of their skull and nasal passages, Pugs are prone to a range of different breathing problems, and may suffer from recurrent nasal infections, so I’ll start by discussing the anatomy of the nasal passages and the defects Pugs typically suffer from. Pseudomonas is a particularly nasty bacterium that can be very difficult to treat effectively, so I’ll also talk about appropriate antibiotic therapy and the reasons why the symptoms may not have resolved. Finally, I’ll look at different ways forward for your dog….

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Do I need to worry about “Alabama Rot”?

You may have read in the news recently of another cluster of dogs affected with the exotically named “Alabama Rot”. Also known as “Cutaneous and Renal Glomerular Vasculopathy” (CRGV), this condition is still poorly understood. As a result, there’s a lot of worry and speculation, and vets are receiving increasing numbers of panic-stricken phone-calls from dog owners! So, what do we actually know about CRGV?
What is it?

Firstly, let’s specify what it isn’t – for example, despite excitable media reports, it isn’t a “flesh eating bug”. Nor is it a “superbug” or a variant of the Ebola (or any other) virus.

Technically speaking, it is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy, a condition where blood clots form in the small blood vessels in the body, blocking off blood supply. For some reason, the skin and the kidneys are most sensitive; without a blood supply, the tissue dies, causing ulcers on the skin, and failure of the kidneys….

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Grapes and raisins can kill dogs. Read this to find out how to keep your pet safe this Christmas.

Does your dog enjoy mince pies and Christmas cake? Beware: you could accidentally poison them.

For many people, it seems unbelievable that grapes and raisins can poison dogs. They’re harmless to humans. We’ve all seen dogs occasionally eating foods containing raisins with no apparent ill effects. How can they suddenly be poisonous?

Why are grapes and raisins not always poisonous to dogs, and never poisonous to humans?

First, like all poisons, the poisonous effect depends on the dose taken per kilogram of animal body weight. Large dogs can safely eat some raisins without problems.

Secondly, the toxic ingredient in raisins seems only to be present intermittently, so a dog may eat raisins without problems on several occasions, then fall seriously ill the next time.

What is the toxic ingredient in grapes and raisins?

The actual toxic ingredient is still a mystery. The fact that grapes and raisins can be poisonous has only been deduced by circumstantial evidence, with many dogs developing acute renal failure for no obvious reason, with the only common factor being the previous ingestion of grapes or raisins. Samples of the fruit in such cases has been analysed, but a toxic agent has not yet been isolated…

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Ask A Vet Online – Help! The fleas are revolting…

Anne Stafferton asked:

This one is a bit boring really I’ve spent hundreds of pounds on flea stuff only for it not to work I breed cats so it’s a nightmare I’m now combing them all every day to get fleas out any suggestions on what really really works

Answer:

Hi Anne, thanks for your question about fleas in cats. I know exactly what you mean – they can be a real nightmare to get under control! I’m going to answer your question by (briefly!) discussing the flea life-cycle and how it can be broken, and then talking about the specific treatments that are available. As a warning, on a blog like this I am legally obliged to use the generic names for all the drugs and medicines (otherwise I would get nasty letters from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate, the government department who regulate advertising of veterinary medicines). You can, however, look up any of the generic names for the active substances and “translate” them into brand names on the VMD’s Product Information Database.

What are fleas?

Fleas are a group of obligate ectoparasites – this means that they live on the outside of other animals, and cannot survive in any other way but by sucking the blood of their hosts. Once an adult flea lays her eggs, they fall onto the floor, the carpet, and into the cat’s bedding. Here they hatch into larvae, which live, hidden deep in the fabric, in the dust, and in cracks in floorboards etc.

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Ask a vet online – How often should my dogs get boosters?

Karen Taylor asked:

How often should our dogs be re-vaccinated (boosters)?

Answer:

Hi Karen, thanks for your question about booster vaccinations. This is an area that’s become quite controversial in the last few years, and there’s a lot of confusion about the subject. In addition, there’s a lot of very poor-quality information out there, so I’ll try to make this quite clear and obvious!

To put it as simply as possible – see your vet every year for a health check, and discuss your vaccination strategy with them.

For more detail… now read on!

What are vaccinations?

Put simply, a vaccination is a way of teaching your dog’s immune system how to recognise and defeat the micro-organism that causes an infectious disease, without the risks (of illness, potential long term health problems or death) inherent in a “natural” infection.

This is achieved in one of three ways:

1) A weakened form of the disease-causing organism.

These are called “modified live” or “attenuated” vaccines, e.g. for Distemper and Parvovirus; the organism included is unable to multiply and/or cause clinical disease, but it is active enough to stimulate a strong immune response. Most modified live vaccines give a stronger and more long-lasting immune response than an inactivated vaccine; however, they aren’t suitable for every disease (because some organisms cannot be weakened enough to make them safe)…

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The story of Dan, a coughing Springer Spaniel

 Dan was a nine year old Springer Spaniel who loved strenuous physical exercise. His owner, Dr Mullen, was a medical doctor who was an enthusiastic hill walker, so they made a good team. They would spend days off in the Dublin mountains together on six-hour hikes through the countryside. Dan was brought to see me because he had developed an irritating cough, and Dr Mullen was worried.

The cough did not affect Dan during exercise. He was still able to run for hours without any problem, but the following morning, immediately after getting up, he would cough repeatedly as he walked around the room. It seemed to be a productive cough: sometimes he swallowed after the cough, and other times Dr Mullen found patches of white phlegm on the floor. When Dan had been up and about for half an hour, the cough seemed to clear, and he’d be fine for the rest of the day…

More Useful Information

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Simple ways to check the health of your pet. Vets use these techniques as part of their clinical examiniation.

Medicating your pet

Arming you with the same simple techniques for stress free pill giving.

Worming & Flea Treatment

Information and advice in treating your pet for worms and fleas.