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Do I really need to worm my horse?

Endoparasites; the gut-wrenching villains that terrorise our horses from their tums to their bums, but how big an issue are they for the average horse? Which worms do we need to be aware of? Is wormer resistance really that big an issue? So many questions, so many drug names.

What is a worm?

A worm, or an endoparasite, is an organism that lives inside of your horse, to your horse’s detriment. We have all seen the adverts for ‘good bacteria’; this is known as a synergistic relationship, where both host and occupier benefit. With parasites, only the parasite gains.

Cyathostomes. Why did the cyathostome always get what he wanted? Because he was so encystant… Excuse my awful jokes; it’s been a long day. Cyathostomes are a type of nematode, or round worm, known as small encysted redworm. The adults, when in the large intestine, produce eggs that the horse will excrete onto their pastures; the eggs then hatch, and the larvae are eaten by the horse. It is also the larvae that are capable of encysting (hiding) in the walls of the large intestine….

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10 tips for keeping your horse cool this summer

While the sun’s glorious rays may leave us jumping for joy, and our saddles, we must be vigilant about ensuring our horses’ well-being. Here are some top tips to avoid the dreaded heat stroke, and ensure our four-legged friends have as much fun in the sun as we do!

What is heat stroke?

Heat exhaustion is characterised by:
1. An elevated body temperature (hyperthermia; a temperature exceeding 41oC/105 F);
2. An elevated heart rate (tachycardia; the normal heart rate of a horse is 36 – 42 beats per minute, although this may be higher in smaller ponies)
3. An elevated respiratory rate (tachypnoea – exceeding the normal 8 – 12 breaths per minute);
4. A tired, unresponsive horse;
5. The horse’s gums will feel dry and tacky; if you press on them, the area under pressure will turn white, and the time to return to normal colour will be longer than in a non-thermally stressed horse. Vets may describe this as a capillary refill time in excess of 3 seconds.

If there is no intervention, the condition may escalate to heat stroke where the horse may stagger, appear depressed or, in extreme cases with central nervous system damage, collapse and have convulsions. This is a serious medical emergency that we have the ability to prevent….

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Supporting The Brooke Animal Hospital and equine welfare

There are few professions that can carry such a range of emotions, than that of working with and caring for animals. Almost all animal charities will tell you of the amazing successes they have with cases, for animals of varying species. They can also tell you of the heart breaking decisions they have to make, on a daily basis.

Recently Vet Help Direct supported one such organisation, The Brooke Animal Hospital….

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Fireworks in the equine world! – How to keep your horse safe this Bonfire Night

This year, 5th November is on a Tuesday – and that means we’re not expecting a Fireworks Night so much as a Fireworks Week!

As prey animals, horses are by their very nature predisposed to panic at loud noises, especially in the dark. Bright flashes of light don’t help either! And panicked horses are rather inclined to run into things and hurt themselves (I’ve spent many hours stitching up horses who have lost arguments with fences, hedges, gates and stable walls).

There are three important elements to keeping horses safe when there are fireworks in the air:

1) Help them to avoid injury

2) Distract them

3) Keep them calm

To avoid injury, I generally recommend that horses be stabled when fireworks are expected. That probably means dusk to dawn for the next fortnight or so, but if possible, find out when displays are expected in your area. You can then focus on those dates and times (but don’t forget that many people will set off a few rockets for themselves and their families). Inside their stables, horses can still become frightened, but they’re not surrounded by the scary noises, and they can’t bolt and get up so much speed, so they’re less likely to cause themselves serious injuries….

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Horses and money – is it really either/or?

With the new financial year, and the recent bad weather, everyone involved in and working with horses is trying to make money go a bit further. Among other issues, the cost of medicines is rising every month (many drugs have seen their manufacturers put the price up 10 or 15% in the last few months), and feed bills are rising due to poor cereal harvests.

As a result, I’ve put together a list of “top tips” for saving money in the coming year.

Firstly, 5 things to do…

1) Make sure you worm smart - which doesn’t necessarily mean often! Many owners still worm religiously every 6-8 weeks; however, recent studies have shown about that 80% of the worms are in 20% of the horses. If your horse doesn’t have a high worm burden, it may be a waste of money pouring expensive wormers down him every other month. In addition, the more wormers we use, the higher the risk of worm resistance – there has been recognised round- or redworm resistance to every active ingredient available in the UK, so the less we use them, the longer they’ll be effective.

The way I like to recommend people go forward is to use Worm Egg Counts – your vet will be able to do these, or will have a lab they send them away to. The test simply takes a faeces sample and counts the worm eggs in it, giving you a good estimate of the number of worms in the horse. Remember, this test can only be done in the warmer months (the worms don’t lay eggs in the winter!), and it only tests for nematodes (round and redworms). To test for tapeworms, your vet will need to take a blood sample, but this usually only needs doing once or at most twice a year.

Depending on the test results, your vet will be able to advise you on the best worming strategy, and if you’ve got a low burden, it may not be necessary to worm at all, as long as your pasture management (poo-picking etc) is decent. I’ve seen horses wormed every month come back with such low counts that we stopped worming completely and, because they weren’t mixing with lots of other horses, they were still worm free a year later. That said, I’ve also seen horses that really do need that regular dose, so it does depend on the yard, the herd and the individual horse.

2) Consider warming up with unaffiliated competitions – and beware direct debits! Skip past this one if you’re not competing – but if you are….

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The Kinder Cut – Castration of horses

This is the time of year when people start to look at their cute little foals, and suddenly realise they’re starting to grow up fast… As a result, it’s also when we start to get phone calls from people to talk about gelding them.

If you are considering getting a colt gelded (“cut”), my advice would be to contact your vet, who will be able to advise you on the best approach in your particlar circumstances. However, I’m going to try and go through some of the commoner questions below, so you’ve got some basic information on the decisions to be made, the procedure, and what you’ll need to consider.

The first question, of course, is whether or not to get him cut. It’s an important decision, so these are my thoughts…
The majority of male horses are castrated, and for very good reason – very few people have the facilities, the time, or the inclination to manage an entire stallion. The old adage had it absolutely right – “You can tell a gelding, you can ask a mare, but you discuss the matter with a stallion”. Although there are some superbly well mannered stallions out there, it takes years of expert training – and in my experience they’re almost always more “bolshie” than a gelding, and much less forgiving of any mistakes. They are also much more easily distracted (e.g. by a passing mare), and prone to fighting.
Does this mean you can’t train them well and keep them happily and healthily? No, of course not – but it’s a lot harder. The majority of stallions can’t be kept in groups because of the husbandry regimes on most yards, so have to live on their own. That’s not good for their mental health, or their owners and riders! If someone has the knowledge and facilities to bring up a stallion, I don’t have a problem with that, and I wish them luck, but I’ve seen too many bored, frustrated and borderline dangerous stallions who haven’t been brought up correctly, and remain a liability.
Geldings, however, can be kept in groups, can mix with other horses, and are less likely to lose the plot or throw a temper tantrum. They also don’t present you with unexpected foals in your competing mares…

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Sedatives and Sedation in Horses

We routinely sedate horses in practice – after vaccination, it’s probably the most common “routine” job that we do. So, what are we doing? How do the drugs work – and why doesn’t it always happen the same way?

“Sedation – a state of rest or sleep… produced by a sedative drug.”

That’s the dictionary definition, and it makes it sound lovely and simple – give a drug, and the patient goes to sleep. Of course, in reality (as usual with anything equine!) life isn’t that easy…

For those who haven’t seen it before, a sedated horse doesn’t lie down, but their head gets lower and lower, and they may require something to lean on to help them balance. It’s also important to remember that a sedated horse CAN still kick – they’re just much less likely to do so! It often seems that the horse is still more or less aware of what’s going on around them, but they’re too sleepy to care about it. As a result, we’d almost invariably use pain relief and local anaesthetic as well if we’re carrying out a surgical procedure.

There are a wide range of situations in which we like to use sedation. Generally, it’s to make the horse more amenable when something nasty or scary is being done to them. Of course, this varies from horse to horse. There are quite a lot of horses out there that need a sedative before the farrier can trim their feet; and there are others that will allow you to suture up a wound without sedation or even local anaesthetic (not recommended, but occasionally necessary)……

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Rain Scald, Mud Fever and Greasy Heels – Wet Weather Care for Horses

I heard on the news recently that this year has been one of the wettest on record. I don’t know if it’s true – but it certainly feels about right! The big danger to our horses from this, of course, is Rain Scald and Mud Fever.

Most people have probably come across Rain Scald on occasions – the scabs hidden away in the coat feel like mud, until you pull them up and see the characteristic “paint brush” appearance as the hair stays stuck in the scab. Rain Scald is caused by a bacterium called Dermatophilus congolensis. This usually lives (fairly) harmlessly on the skin, but if the skin gets and stays wet, the bacteria can invade and set up an infection.

Most cases are mild, with just a few scabs here and there, but (especially in older horses and those with Cushing’s disease) it can be more general and leave large raw patches. Even a mild case can put a horse “off games” if the scabs or raw patches are under the saddle.

Most cases resolve on their own with simple care – gently brush out the scabs, and most importantly keep the area dry to allow it to heal. That said, older horses and those with other diseases may need a helping hand, in which case a short course of antibiotics from your vet will usually clear it up. HOWEVER… Unless the underlying problem is sorted, it will rapidly return! Prevention is far more important, and that means keeping the skin as dry as possible. Remember, if your horse gets wet, that’s fine as long as he can then dry out thoroughly. It’s if the skin stays constantly wet that problems ensue – and watch out for rugs, especially in early autumn! When it’s wet, but not that cold, horses can easily sweat up under their rugs, and sweat seems to be even worse than rain for causing Rain Scald.

The other thing to watch out for, of course, is Mud Fever. This is an infection of the skin behind the heels (its sometimes called Greasy Heels), and is most common in horses with long feathers. It’s a far more complicated disease than rain scald, and has a large number of contributary causes. The most important is wet weather, of course – as the skin gets wet, bacteria can invade, as in rain scald – long feathers keep the water trapped in the area, slowing down the drying, so cobs and heavy horses are more prone. However, mites are also a known cause (the first signs are usually stamping of the hind legs), and its not just bacteria, because some cases include yeasts and other fungi as well. Sometimes, really aggressive bacteria like Pseudomonas can establish themselves, and they can be really difficult to manage………….

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Equine Education (Part 2 – Vet Students)

Have you ever wondered who the young person trailing behind your vet is? They appear, at best they’re introduced as “so-and-so, who’s seeing practice with us”, and then they disappear, never to be seen again…

Well, the odds are they’re vet students who are “seeing practice” with your vet.

Training as a vet is a long process – vet students spend 5 or 6 years at university doing lectures, practicals and clinical work. However, in that space of time, they also have to do the equivalent of an extra year of “EMS” (Extra-Mural Studies, generally known as “seeing practice”). This is their chance to get out of the lecture theatre, away from the ivory towers and out into the real world of practice!

As vets in practice, our job is to take these students and teach them the nuts and bolts of veterinary practice. They’ll learn the science, and all the theory, at vet school; however, there is also an art to veterinary practice, and that’s our responsibility. For example, if the client can’t afford the best treatment, how do you proceed? Or if a client refuses consent for a surgical procedure, what other options can be explored?

At the vet schools, students tend to learn a lot about the more esoteric and uncommon diseases, operations and procedures – this is because they operate referral hospitals (although Nottingham uses an expanded version of the EMS system for virtually all their clinical tuition). Although they do have first opinion practices, in all seven schools the teaching tends to be biased towards the rare and exotic. Out in general practice, however, the axiom “Common things are common” applies – for every septic pedal joint, there are dozens of simple hoof abscesses!…………………..

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BEVA Congress 2012 – How Horse Vets Keep Up to Date

As vets, we’re always trying to do the very best for our patients. However, veterinary medicine is constantly changing – every year, hundreds, even thousands of new papers are published, new drugs become available, and new machines and tools come on the market. What was the “gold standard” of treatment for a disease ten years ago might now be proven to be more harmful than helpful! At a recent conference (BEVA Congress – see below for more on that…), John Walmsey, one of the foremost and best respected members of the profession, gave the plenary lecture talking about the massive changes that have taken place in equine veterinary care in the four and a half decades since he graduated. The drugs we have now are far more effective, the machines and tools more robust and more useful. Even ten years ago, MRI in the horse was really rare and (to be honest) unreliable; now it’s a standard tool in working up a complex lameness. As a result, with the field of knowledge constantly changing, it’s more important than ever for vets in practice to keep up!
The process of keeping up to date is known as CPD (Continuing Professional Development), and we are expected to do at least 5 days a year. It can be made up in a number of ways, including lectures, seminars, webinars, practical courses and reading journals and papers. Like most equine vets, I receive the big journals Equine Veterinary Journal and Equine Veterinary Education, which (respectively) publish papers on equine science and equine surgery and medicine. I also try to attend relevant courses and lectures as often as I can.

In September, I was at the BEVA (British Equine Veterinary Association) Congress in Birmingham. This is one of the biggest gatherings of horse vets in the world, and I try to go most years. Congress lasts for three days of lectures and seminars, as well as a large commercial exhibition. It’s a great place to go to pick up the latest ideas, new treatments and medicines, and catch up with colleagues from across the country. I sometimes think we learn almost as much from talking over cases with colleagues as we do in the lecture theatres!

This year was notable for…

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