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Could your cat have high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is a common problem for humans but did you know that cats can get it too? High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is actually quite common in older cats, especially those with other diseases such as kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. The symptoms can be quite subtle or mimic those of other diseases so many cases remain undetected for quite some time. If left untreated, however, hypertension can lead to significant secondary health problems, so it’s definitely worth testing for.

What exactly is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure occurs when the pressure within the blood vessels exceeds a certain threshold. Think of the hosepipe used to water your garden. If you turn the tap on too strongly, the water shoots out of the nozzle uncontrollably, damaging your flowers. The same is true for the body – organs like the brain and kidneys need blood to survive but if the blood pressure gets too high….

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Ask a vet online – is there a test for Leptospirosis?

Berry Wilkinson asked:

I was wondering if you can titre test for leptospirosis? Or is it only useful when you are testing sick dogs? Thanks.

Answer:

Hi Berry, thanks for your question about testing for Leptospirosis. To answer it, I’ll briefly discuss Leptospirosis as a disease, then talk about the different diagnostic techniques available. Finally, I’ll discuss vaccination and the implications for diagnosis.

What is Leptospirosis?

Leptospirosis (“Lepto”) is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. There are more than 300 strains (technically called serovars) of the bacteria. In the UK, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae and L. canicola used to be the most common, but since widespread vaccination against these has started, it is now thought that L. interrogans and L. kirschneri may be more important.

The disease is transmitted by body fluids of infected animals, including rats. The symptoms of Leptospirosis in dogs include:

Fever and sore muscles.
Loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhoea and dehydration.
It may cause kidney or liver failure
Sometimes the only symptom is sudden death.
Infected dogs may shed the bacteria in their urine for months or years without showing any clinical signs.
Leptospirosis is highly zoonotic – i.e. it is a high risk pathogen for infecting humans.
How is Leptospirosis diagnosed?

There are four methods to test for Leptospira in clinical samples, of which two are clinically useful. They are:…

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Ask a vet online – my dog has skin allergies, how do I help?

Question from Leona Poppleton:

my dog has skin allergies and so gets very dry skin and sometimes scabs that look quite painful is there anything that I can get or do to help this?

Answer: Scabby Skin

Hi Leona, thanks for your question about your dog’s skin. Allergies with skin symptoms are pretty common in dogs, so I’ll briefly discuss allergic disease, then go on to some of the many different treatment options.

What are skin allergies?

The phrase “skin allergies” refers to the itching, scratching and sore skin that allergic dogs get. However, it doesn’t have to be caused by something on the skin – e.g. food allergies (although quite rare in dogs) can lead to skin symptoms – so “allergic skin disease” is a better term.

Essentially what is happening is that the dog’s immune system misidentifies a harmless substance as a dangerous threat, and tries to attack it, causing soreness and itching. Allergic reactions may be triggered by a wide range of substances such as pollen, certain foods, fleas, mites, plants or even some washing powders. In a large number of cases, there’s no specific “allergy” involved, but the dog has a disease called Atopy (or Atopic Dermatitis), where the immune system reacts abnormally to a wide range of different stimuli. Atopy is partially genetic, and is more common in some breeds (e.g. West Highland White Terriers).

How is it diagnosed?

It is important to get allergic skin disease properly diagnosed by your vet because there are many contributing factors and different underlying problems….

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Do vets charge too much for bitch spays?

As part of my work as a “media vet”, I’m a strong advocate for spaying and neutering pets as the best way to control the problem of pet overpopulation. Accidental pregnancies still account for a high number of unwanted puppies and kittens, and routine spaying/neutering of young adult pets is the best way to prevent these. This doesn’t meant that every pet needs to be spayed/neutered when young (there are some good reasons to delay or even not to do the operation for some individual animals), but it does mean that every pet owner should at least discuss the options with their vet around the time of puberty.

Why do people refuse to have their pets spayed?

People have a variety of reasons for not having the operations done on their pets, and the cost is a major factor. In a recent social media discussion, the following comment came in.

“Vets should reduce their fee to £120 for a female dog. A lot of people genuinely just can’t afford it.”

Why don’t vets reduce their fees?

This is a good point. Why don’t vets reduce the price of spaying?…

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Elizabethan Collars – a necessary evil?

One of my clients was talking about his recently neutered bitch today. “She needs one of those Victorian Buckets” he said. I knew what he was talking about, but his terminology was not quite correct. The problem was that his bitch had been licking her operation wound, and he wanted to stop her. The item he was describing is an important tool to assist the healing of animals’ wounds. It is more correctly called an ‘Elizabethan Collar’, because it resembles the white starched lace collars that Queen Elizabeth I and her subjects used to wear….

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What makes dogs lame, and how can they be helped?

Why is a lame dog lame? The obvious, but incorrect, answer to the question is ‘because it has a sore leg’. The correct answer is more complicated, but also quite obvious when you think about it.

Firstly, what is a lameness? Everybody knows what a lame animal looks like – they ‘walk wrongly’. But what is happening to make them walk wrongly? There are three main reasons why lameness may occur.

Pain is the most common and most important cause of lameness. If an animal damages a limb, any further pressure causes more pain, and so the instinctive response is to rest the limb, by carrying it, or at least by not putting full weight on it. The type of damage can vary widely from a bruise to a laceration. The damage can be anywhere in the limb, from the toe to the shoulder or hip, and the result is the same – a lame animal. Long term diseases such as arthritis can also involve considerable pain.

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Ask a vet online – “My dog has trouble peeing”

Question from Jaamal Dupas:

I have a 7 month old female dog. When she squats to pee the first time it’s normal. Then she tries again and only a few drops. And i noticed a drop of blood the last time she went. Could this be a UTI or her going into her first heat. I have a vet apt in a few days but was just curious.

Answer: Pee Problems-dribbling and blood

Hi Jaamal, thanks for your question about your dog’s urinating. To answer your question, I’m going to discuss the “symptoms” she’s showing, the possible causes, and then talk about how your vet will go about deciding which one of these conditions is the cause, and the treatment options.

What are the symptoms?

Technically, in animals they’re called clinical signs, not symptoms, but it means the same thing. In the case of your dog, she’s able to urinate, but it’s taking her two or more goes to empty her bladder….

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Ask a vet online- ‘what is this on my dog’s paw?’

Question from Keagan Palardy:

Does any one know what this is on my poor doggies paw?:(

paw

Answer from Shanika Winters:

Thank you for sending the photo of your dog’s paw along with your question as to what it might be.  I will discuss some of the possibilities for what a lesion (growth/diseased area) similar to the one on your dog’s paw could be, how we would try and make a diagnosis and then treatment options.

What is this on my dog’s paw?

The first thing we need to do is find out more details about your dog, your vet will ask you a lot of questions to from what we call a history, this includes information about your dog’s:…

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Ask a vet online ‘symptoms to know if your dog has kidney failure’

Question from Susanne Hayward:

how come no symtems to know if your dog has kidney failier

Answer from Shanika Winters:

Hi Susanne and thank you for your question about how to know if your dog has kidney failure. I will answer your question by discussing what kidney failure is, how we diagnose it and what signs you can look out for in your dog.

So what is kidney failure?

The kidneys are two bean shaped organs present mid way along the back of your dog’s abdomen (tummy); they have a large blood vessel going in and another large blood vessel coming out of them. The job of the kidneys is to filter your dog’s blood and remove toxic/waste products but make sure that the important useful chemicals e.g. proteins, nutrients (sugars and fats) and blood cells remain in the blood. The kidneys are also involved in breaking down some chemicals such as medications. The Kidneys are also important when it comes to keeping the correct amount of water in your dog’s blood, this ensures that all the body cells are adequately hydrated and can function at their best.

Kidney failure is a term used to describe a stage of kidney disease once more than two thirds of your dog’s kidney function has been lost. That means that out of the function of your dogs two kidneys there is a third or less now working. Kidney disease is a broader term used to describe any problem with the kidneys this could be infection, neoplasia (tumour), polycystic (disease where kidneys are taken up by lots of cysts or cavities) or loss of function with age.

So how does my vet look for kidney disease?

Whenever you take your dog to see your vet they will ask you questions regarding how your dog is doing in general including how they are eating, drinking, urinating (weeing) and defecating (pooing)….

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Ask a vet online – ‘my puppy has watery eyes’

Question from Eileen Murphy:

Hi, I have a bichon x poodle. She has been really poorly. She was born with a skin infection. She pulled through it and her fur is growing back on her face but since this she has been suffering with very watery eyes. Do I need to be taking her back to vets? She is healthy and very playful. I have no other worries from her.

Answer from vet Cat Henstridge

Excessively watery eyes are a common problem in both the Bichon Frisé and Poodle breeds, so it seems like your baby is following the trend!

However, it is important to have her checked over. Although dogs like her can have watery eyes as a ‘normal’ issue, it can also be caused by problems which are painful and need fixing. The most common of these is conjunctivitis….

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