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Ask A Vet Online – My cat is itchy with watering eyes…

Ellie Masters asked:

My cat is scratching above his eyes and losing fur, sometimes his eyes water too. this happened earlier in the summer he went through testing nothing found, he’s treated with stronghold so no fleas etc. All help appreciated as at wits end now

Reply:

Hi again Ellie, thanks for your question!

To answer it, I’m going to discuss the possible causes, then the investigations available to demonstrate them, and then finally possible treatment options.

What possible causes are there?

Given that he’s scratching the area around his eyes, losing fur and has watery eyes, there are three immediate possibilities that spring to mind.

The first is a primary eye disease – conjunctivitis, a corneal ulcer, chlamydia or calicivirus infection are probably the four conditions I’d be wanting to rule out. In this situation, the hair loss is because of his constant rubbing at his sore eyes.

The second possibility is that it is a skin disease, manifesting most dramatically on his head above his eyes. This may sound unlikely, but many cats suffer from a condition called miliary dermatitis, where the skin becomes very itchy and forms tiny red scabs or bumps – often it is focussed above the eyes and in front of the ears, although along the back is also a possibility. This is not a diagnosis, but a symptom – and is most commonly associated with parasites, allergies, or skin infections.

The third option is a condition that affects both the skin and the eyes – classically, this would be a more general allergy of some sort. Allergies in cats are less well understood than in dogs, however, food allergies are thought to be the second most common cause of itching in cats (after fleas and other parasites). Other possibilities would include auto-immune disease, where the immune system starts attacking healthy tissues.

So, how do you tell which it is?…

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Ask A Vet Online – Help, I’ve got a stuffy-nosed Pug!

Natalie Kent asked:

My 8 year old pug has just been diagnosed with Pseudomonas in his nose. He’s been having problems with his nose for about a year, discharge, blocked up etc. Vet did a nose swab and found this bacteria. He’s been on marbocyl antibiotics for 2 weeks and it’s not completely gone away, still a bit of discharge and a bit stuffy but vet refuses to give any more tablets, what else would you suggest?

Reply:

Hi Natalie, thanks for your question. Because of the conformation of their skull and nasal passages, Pugs are prone to a range of different breathing problems, and may suffer from recurrent nasal infections, so I’ll start by discussing the anatomy of the nasal passages and the defects Pugs typically suffer from. Pseudomonas is a particularly nasty bacterium that can be very difficult to treat effectively, so I’ll also talk about appropriate antibiotic therapy and the reasons why the symptoms may not have resolved. Finally, I’ll look at different ways forward for your dog….

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Do I need to worry about “Alabama Rot”?

You may have read in the news recently of another cluster of dogs affected with the exotically named “Alabama Rot”. Also known as “Cutaneous and Renal Glomerular Vasculopathy” (CRGV), this condition is still poorly understood. As a result, there’s a lot of worry and speculation, and vets are receiving increasing numbers of panic-stricken phone-calls from dog owners! So, what do we actually know about CRGV?
What is it?

Firstly, let’s specify what it isn’t – for example, despite excitable media reports, it isn’t a “flesh eating bug”. Nor is it a “superbug” or a variant of the Ebola (or any other) virus.

Technically speaking, it is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy, a condition where blood clots form in the small blood vessels in the body, blocking off blood supply. For some reason, the skin and the kidneys are most sensitive; without a blood supply, the tissue dies, causing ulcers on the skin, and failure of the kidneys….

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A Christmas story from a vet on call & a reminder that if you do have a pet crisis over the holiday, a vet is always there to help

It was Christmas morning. The phone rang at 6.30am. It was the Barrs of Lauder Hill. ‘ Sorry about this, but we’ve a heifer stuck calving’. I was in my car within 10 minutes, and carrying out the Caesarian operation to remove the calf within half an hour.

The Barrs welcomed me into their farmhouse afterwards for a Christmas breakfast. The calf had been a strong, healthy bull calf, and the farmers were delighted with their Christmas present. We were settling down to enjoy the full glory of a Scottish farmhouse breakfast when my bleeper sounded. It was only 8.30 a.m. and already another emergency had to be dealt with – a calf with bloat 15 miles away, at the Buchanans in Melrose. By lunchtime I had seen a horse with colic, six calves with acute pneumonia, a dairy cow with severe mastitis and a dog with a sudden onset choking cough. The afternoon was just as busy, and I was finally able to sit down with the family at seven in the evening. Two hours later there was another call to another difficult calving….

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Is that “veterinary nurse” really a veterinary nurse?

Language and terminology is important. Our society recognises this fact, and in some walks of life, you cannot call yourself by certain terms unless you are appropriately qualified.

The medical field is the area where so-called “protected titles” are most prevalent: there’s a long list from “music therapist” to “dietician” to “clinical scientist” to “physiotherapist” and “paramedic”. If you read the list, you’ll be surprised, and I suspect that you’ll be reassured too: it’s good to know that when you go to see a “hearing aid dispenser”, under law they must be properly trained and qualified.

There are serious penalties for people who try to set themselves up as one of these practitioners when they are not entitled to do so: anyone using one of these titles must be registered with the Health and Care Professions Council, or they may be subject to prosecution and a fine of up to £5,000.

Interestingly, not all professional titles are protected. The words “doctor” and “nurse” have been in general use for hundreds of years to describe a variety of people, and so they are not specifically protected. The title “doctor” is used far more broadly than just for medical doctors, with a number of professions (including dentists and now vets) using it as a courtesy title, as well as people who hold academic doctorates, such as PhDs.

Similarly, the title “nurse” is not protected: as well as medical nurses, it’s used by nursery nurses in nursery schools, and sometimes by veterinary nurses.

The fact that the terms “doctor” and “nurse” are not protected can lead to issues where the public can be mislead by individuals who use the terms to their advantage (such as a person who is an academic doctor trying to pass themselves off as a medical doctor). For this reason, the terms “doctor of medicine” and “registered nurse” are protected titles, but for the public, arguably this is not sufficient to avoid confusion.

There are some professions that would like to have protected titles, but for various reasons, this is not possible. Anybody can call themselves an “engineer”, a “scientist” or a “surveyor” because these terms are said to be in such widespread use. These professions have had to add prefixes to their titles to try to minimise confusion, such as “incorporated engineers”, “biomedical scientists” or “chartered surveyors”.

Only properly qualified and registered vets are allowed to call themselves “veterinary surgeons”, but there is a major anomaly in the veterinary world: anybody, even without training or qualification, is allowed to call themselves “veterinary nurse”. The veterinary nursing profession has so far had to use the protected title “registered veterinary nurse” to be used exclusively by properly trained and qualified nurses, but there’s a strong argument that this is not enough. Most readers, I’m sure, would agree that if they were dealing with someone calling themselves a “veterinary nurse”, they would assume that the person was qualified. Unless something changes, it’s very likely that unscrupulous individuals will use this confusion to their advantage, misleading people into believing that they are qualified.

What has to change? Clearly, the term “veterinary nurse” needs to be made a protected title. The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the British Veterinary Association and the British Veterinary Nursing Association all believe that this is necessary. They are asking Parliament to change the law to protect the title “veterinary nurse”, and they need as much help as possible to achieve this.

Please sign the official petition to register your support. The aim is to get 100,000 signatories which will trigger the issue will be considered for a formal parliamentary debate. The petition is currently at 20,594 signatures and the petition closes on 14th February 2016 so time is running out. The engineering profession tried a similar tactic to protect the word “engineer” last year, but the attempt failed after their petition only reached 6176 signatures.

It makes clear sense that the term “veterinary nurse” should be trusted as the recognised name for a skilled, trained and qualified profession. If you agree, please sign this petition now, and ask as many as possible of your friends and contacts to do the same.

Please follow this link to the petition.

The RCVS has also produced a short animation stating the reasons behind the petition:  watch this by clicking here.

Animals are the ones who will benefit from “veterinary nurse” being protected: so if you care, take action now.…

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Grapes and raisins can kill dogs. Read this to find out how to keep your pet safe this Christmas.

Does your dog enjoy mince pies and Christmas cake? Beware: you could accidentally poison them.

For many people, it seems unbelievable that grapes and raisins can poison dogs. They’re harmless to humans. We’ve all seen dogs occasionally eating foods containing raisins with no apparent ill effects. How can they suddenly be poisonous?

Why are grapes and raisins not always poisonous to dogs, and never poisonous to humans?

First, like all poisons, the poisonous effect depends on the dose taken per kilogram of animal body weight. Large dogs can safely eat some raisins without problems.

Secondly, the toxic ingredient in raisins seems only to be present intermittently, so a dog may eat raisins without problems on several occasions, then fall seriously ill the next time.

What is the toxic ingredient in grapes and raisins?

The actual toxic ingredient is still a mystery. The fact that grapes and raisins can be poisonous has only been deduced by circumstantial evidence, with many dogs developing acute renal failure for no obvious reason, with the only common factor being the previous ingestion of grapes or raisins. Samples of the fruit in such cases has been analysed, but a toxic agent has not yet been isolated…

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Ask A Vet Online – Help! The fleas are revolting…

Anne Stafferton asked:

This one is a bit boring really I’ve spent hundreds of pounds on flea stuff only for it not to work I breed cats so it’s a nightmare I’m now combing them all every day to get fleas out any suggestions on what really really works

Answer:

Hi Anne, thanks for your question about fleas in cats. I know exactly what you mean – they can be a real nightmare to get under control! I’m going to answer your question by (briefly!) discussing the flea life-cycle and how it can be broken, and then talking about the specific treatments that are available. As a warning, on a blog like this I am legally obliged to use the generic names for all the drugs and medicines (otherwise I would get nasty letters from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate, the government department who regulate advertising of veterinary medicines). You can, however, look up any of the generic names for the active substances and “translate” them into brand names on the VMD’s Product Information Database.

What are fleas?

Fleas are a group of obligate ectoparasites – this means that they live on the outside of other animals, and cannot survive in any other way but by sucking the blood of their hosts. Once an adult flea lays her eggs, they fall onto the floor, the carpet, and into the cat’s bedding. Here they hatch into larvae, which live, hidden deep in the fabric, in the dust, and in cracks in floorboards etc.

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Rabbits are not like small dogs or long-eared cats. And it’s not just that they eat grass.

When something goes wrong with an animal’s nervous system, it’s very upsetting, and it’s easy to panic. People often make generalisations, and leap to the wrong conclusion. He’s falling over! He’s had a stroke! He’s dragging his back legs! To help animals, it’s important for vets to be as objective as possible, making a careful note of precisely which part of the nervous system has gone wrong. Vets do this using a specific examination procedure, known as the “neurological examination”. There are tick sheets available to make it easier for vets: various aspects of the nervous system are examined individually, and at the end, it’s then easier to be specific about the precise diagnosis. Only then can the correct treatment and prognosis be given…

The structure of the heart: everything you didn’t know you wanted to know from Wikivet

The heart is probably the most central structure in the body. Arguably, the brain could be said to be “more important” (death is classified technically as absence of brain activity rather than a motionless heart), but for most of us, a beating heart is synonymous with the presence of life. We all have a heart – whether we are dogs, cats, humans, or indeed frogs – and one of the fascinating things about veterinary science is the fact that the fundamental structure of many organs – including the heart – is surprisingly similar.

There must be something intriguing about the structure of the heart: the Wikivet page on this subject has been the most visited page of all over the past year….

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Ask a vet online – How often should my dogs get boosters?

Karen Taylor asked:

How often should our dogs be re-vaccinated (boosters)?

Answer:

Hi Karen, thanks for your question about booster vaccinations. This is an area that’s become quite controversial in the last few years, and there’s a lot of confusion about the subject. In addition, there’s a lot of very poor-quality information out there, so I’ll try to make this quite clear and obvious!

To put it as simply as possible – see your vet every year for a health check, and discuss your vaccination strategy with them.

For more detail… now read on!

What are vaccinations?

Put simply, a vaccination is a way of teaching your dog’s immune system how to recognise and defeat the micro-organism that causes an infectious disease, without the risks (of illness, potential long term health problems or death) inherent in a “natural” infection.

This is achieved in one of three ways:

1) A weakened form of the disease-causing organism.

These are called “modified live” or “attenuated” vaccines, e.g. for Distemper and Parvovirus; the organism included is unable to multiply and/or cause clinical disease, but it is active enough to stimulate a strong immune response. Most modified live vaccines give a stronger and more long-lasting immune response than an inactivated vaccine; however, they aren’t suitable for every disease (because some organisms cannot be weakened enough to make them safe)…

More Useful Information

Examining your pet

Simple ways to check the health of your pet. Vets use these techniques as part of their clinical examiniation.

Medicating your pet

Arming you with the same simple techniques for stress free pill giving.

Worming & Flea Treatment

Information and advice in treating your pet for worms and fleas.