‘Miaow!’ One simple word, so many possible meanings. Is she happy? Is she hungry? Is she scared? It’s all in the tone in which it’s delivered. And that’s just the miaow – researchers have documented 19 different vocal patterns in domestic cats ranging from purrs to chirps to growls, along with countless body language cues. Do you really know how to interpret them? Test your feline language skills below… A deep, rhythmic purr We'll start with an easy one – a purr means she’s happy, right? Possibly, but that may not always be the case. In fact, cats purr for many reasons. Young kittens and mother cats purr during nursing, possibly as a way of maintaining contact and communicating contentment. Adult cats purr when they're in the company of other cats or humans that they are friendly with, especially during grooming or petting or resting together. And as most cat owners probably already know, they also purr when they want something. This ‘solicitation’ purr contains some of the high frequency peaks also found in a human baby’s cry, and it is commonly thought that cats use this to their advantage when asking for food at 5am. But what many people don't know is that cats will sometimes also purr when they are nervous or even painful. We don't know exactly why they do it, but the important thing to remember is that purring doesn't necessarily mean that a cat is happy, you need to look at the rest of their body language for clues. Think of it like a human smile – we do it when we're happy, but also when we want something or when we're nervous. Blinking, half-closed eyes If you said this is a sign of contentment, you would be absolutely right. A cat who stares without blinking is alert and confrontational, while a cat with half closed eyes is relaxed and feels safe in their environment. Interestingly, this is one of the few ways that we can truly speak their language. I use it all the time whilst consulting – before starting my exam, I catch their eye briefly and then blink slowly as if to say ‘It’s ok, you're safe here’. They almost always respond by blinking back, and are then much more likely to relax while I do what I need to do. But even this isn't always the case, as a cat in pain can also have squinty eyes, but the rest of their body language will be very different. The tail flick This is a really useful one to know as it can save you a scratch or two! If you are petting your cat and notice that they start to flick their tail quickly from side to side, I'd suggest you take a break because it probably either means that they're getting fed up with what you're doing or they're getting playful and are ready to pounce! Often accompanied with a widening of the eyes which may help you recognise their increasing level of alertness. Wee on the carpet This may not seem like a method of communication, or at least you probably won't be thinking rationally enough to see it as such at the time, but cats frequently use urine and even faeces as a way of getting their point across. One of the first words that comes to mind when you discover such an incident is probably ‘spite’, but try not to take it personally and instead try to figure out why it may have occurred. It may be that they are painful and need to see the vet, or that they are unhappy with your neighbour’s cat who keeps peering in on them from the window. If the culprit is an intact male cat, talk to your vet about castration because there is a good chance that the underlying reason is territorial. Grooming Although this is usually associated with relaxed, friendly cats or members of the same family, grooming may serve another purpose. Like the nervous purr, cats sometimes groom each other’s heads and necks when they're feeling intimidated or antagonistic, possibly as an attempt to avoid overt aggression. Chances are they're feeling pretty comfortable when they start grooming you, although I have on occasion had a ‘nervous licker’ during an exam and even known a few cats to lick forcefully before they bite. Chirping It’s a funny sound, almost like a very excited miaow but broken and muted at times. Often associated with a tail twitch and very wide eyes, it is a sign of extreme interest. My cat regularly ‘chirps’ when looking out the window at the birds on the feeder. An amusing, hopeful sound indeed! Scratching on your new leather sofa Again, try not to push human emotions onto your cat and assume that they're doing it to get back at you for going out to dinner instead of spending time with them the night before. In actual fact, cats have scent glands on the bottoms of their feet and between their toes so scratching (including the visual signs that are left behind) is another method of letting other cats know that this is their territory. Make an effort to find out the underlying cause, or at least be sure to provide them plenty of other more suitable places to ‘sharpen their claws’. Hissssssssss! No surprises here, if you hear this sound, back off. Cats are instinctively tuned into this sound and are therefore easily frightened by any noise that resembles a hiss such as aerosol spray cans or our own frantic ‘psssssssst!’ when we catch them up on the kitchen counter. If their hiss escalates to a spit, don’t just back off, turn and walk away. Quickly. If you were surprised by some of the answers above, spend some time observing your cat over the next few weeks. You’ll be amazed by what you find when you know what to look for! Even those fluent in ‘felinese’ can learn something new from their cats every day. The more you understand what your cat is trying to tell you, the better your relationship will be so it’s definitely worth the effort.