Browsing tag: dog

Ask a vet online – ‘my dog has been weeing blood could it be infection or something more’

Question from Sharon Harris:

My dog aged 10 has on a couple of times been weeing blood he does one long one which is ok then just walks round weeing bits but that’s when the blood starts he is wanting to go out more often than he usually does ,drinking more still eating and his usual self but have noticed a lump that is inside lower stomach but has lumps all over his body but many wiems have these lumps could it be infection or something more

Answer from Shanika Winters:

Hi Sharon, thank you for your question regarding your 10 year old dog who is passing blood in his urine (wee) this symptom is called Haematuria. It sounds like your dog is still bright and happy in himself, it is possible that his haematuria is due to an infection but can also be related to bladder disease, kidney disease or prostate disease.  It is really important to get your dog examined by your vet as soon as possible.

What will happen when I take my dog to the vet?

Your vet will ask a lot of questions to form a history of what is going on with your dog, including drinking and urinating habits which you have already listed in your question.  It is very helpful to bring in a urine sample in a clean container when the condition relates to the urine.  It can be tricky to catch a urine sample from your dog, especially if they prefer to wee when off the lead but a clean bowl and some perseverance should eventually mean you can get a sample.  Your vet can collect a sample by passing a urinary catheter (long thin soft plastic tube placed into the bladder) but this can be uncomfortable and may require sedation/hospitalisation for your dog.

Your vet will also take into consideration whether or not your pet has been neutered(castrated) as in older male dogs the influence of sex hormones(produced by the testicles) can affect the prostate gland which can lead to haematuria.  The prostate gland is found in male dogs around the neck of the bladder and it produces various secretions which go into semen (the liquid sperm is in).  The prostate gland is usually small and inactive in neutered male dogs, but in entire male dogs the prostate can become enlarged, infected and or cancerous.  Many of the diseases of the prostate gland can lead to haematuria.  Your vet can often feel the shape and size of your dog’s prostate gland by examining your dog internally and externally.

The kidneys are the organ which actually produces urine, your dog has two and they filter his blood to remove toxins and waste products which are then lost in the urine.  So haematuria could be blood coming from the kidneys either due to infection, kidney stones or cancerous changes in the kidneys or the tubing from the kidneys to the bladder (the ureters).

The bladder is a stretchy bag made of muscle and lined with a delicate membrane (layer) which stores the urine produced by the kidneys and empties out through a tube called the urethra.  Haematuria could be blood from the bladder or urethra due to infection, stones, polyps, trauma (accidents) or cancerous changes.

Your vet will thoroughly examine your dog paying extra attention to the back end of the abdomen, will also check your dog’s penis and likely examine your dog internally (via his bottom).  This helps to give information about the kidneys, bladder and prostate gland.

What will happen to the urine sample?

The first thing your vet will do is look at the colour of the urine sample, this may or may not show visible blood, sometime only tiny traces of blood are present in the urine sample and can be picked up on a dip stick. A urine dip stick is a card strip that has lots of little coloured patches on it; they each detect different chemicals and substances in the urine and give a quick result.  Most veterinary practices can also examine urine samples under the microscope to look for unusual cells and or crystals. If the result and rest of your dog’s examination suggests infection then your vet may suggest trying a course of antibiotics.  If however your vet thinks there may be more going on a carefully collected urine sample may be sent for laboratory analysis which involves culture and sensitivity, this looks at what bacteria are present and which antibiotics are likely to work on them.

What further test might my dog need?

Your vet may suggest blood tests to check that your pet has not lost too much blood, how its general health is and how well its body organs are functioning.  Blood tests do not always show up a lot of changes but this still gives us information as to how your dog is.

X-rays may be taken conscious or under sedation or general anaesthesia, this gives a picture of what is happening inside of your dog, in the case of the bladder and prostate gland we sometimes add a contrast (chemical or air) to help show up details of the tubing and bladder lining.

Ultra sound scans are another way of looking more closely at what is happening inside your dog, in order for these to be performed an area of fur will be clipped away, the skin cleaned and then a gel placed onto it to help p the ultrasound probe to make good contact and pick up details.  Ultrasound scans can be particularly useful for looking at the kidneys and bladder.

What possible treatments might my dog need?

The exact treatment your dog has will depend on what disease process is found in in what part of your dog it is.

Urine tract infection:
This is usually treated with a course of antibiotics and repeat urine samples tested to see when the infection has cleared.

Bladder stones/urine crystals:
This can be treated using special diets to reduce stone/crystal formation, surgery to remove stones, medications to help dissolve stones/crystals along with antibiotics and pain relief as required.

Bladder growths/polyps:
These can be surgically removed and analysed to give an idea of they are likely to return or cause further problems.

Kidney infection: 
This is usually treated by intensive antibiotics along with intra venous fluid therapy (drip line into your dog) to help keep the kidneys flushed through and functioning.

Kidney growth/abnormalities:
If the growth is cancerous and might spread then the kidney might be surgically removed. If the kidney is diseased e.g. polycystic then it will be left in place and your dog given medications and diets to help preserve what is left of its kidney function.

Prostate enlargement/growths:
If your dog is entire then surgical or chemical castration might be advised along with surgery to de bulk the growth if appropriate.

I hope that my answer has helped you to understand how complex something as simple as blood in the urine can be.  Hopefully with your vets help, your dog will be on his road to recovery soon.

Shanika Winters MRCVS (Online vet)

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

“Me and My Dog” – working together to eradicate rabies

Pete with his own dog, Kiko

Pete with his own dog, Kiko

Most dog owners adore their pets, and “pet selfies” are a popular way of expressing the joy of the bond between human and animal. A new campaign by a charity is using pet selfies to drive forwards an important goal: the global eradication of rabies.

The concept is simple. Take a selfie of yourself with your pet, then upload it to the charity website. When you reach the uploading page, you’ll be asked if you want to make a donation: even a couple of pounds will do. The idea is to make this a viral campaign: if enough people do this, the charity will raise a game-changing sum of money, and the goal of rabies eradication will be a step closer.

There’s an irony to the idea of “dog and owner” pictures being used to counter rabies: 99% of human cases of rabies are caused by dog bites. If it wasn’t for the close relationship between humans and dogs, rabies wouldn’t be an issue.

The fact is that rabies is a big issue: over 150 people die of the disease every day, mostly in Africa and Asia. Scientists have worked out how to eradicate rabies. If 70% of all dogs in an area are vaccinated once against rabies, the disease dwindles and disappears. They’ve done it in South America over the past thirty years. In 1983, Latin America committed to mass dog vaccination: dog rabies cases in the region declined from a peak of 25,000 in 1977 to just 196 in 2011, and human cases fell by 96 per cent to only 15 across the whole continent. The aim of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control is to achieve the same levels of success in Africa and Asia.

While it sounds simple to vaccinate 70% of the dogs in an area, it’s difficult to do this in practice, on the ground, in real-life situations. A level of systematic organisation is necessary and in many parts of the world, it’s difficult to make dog vaccination a high enough priority for this to happen. But although it’s difficult, it’s not impossible.

Every year, more than 15 million people worldwide receive a post-exposure rabies vaccination, after being bitten by a dog, to prevent the disease – this is estimated to prevent hundreds of thousands of rabies deaths annually. This includes millions of people in Asia and Africa, and it’s a fact that may contain the seed of an answer to the problem. It’s much more costly to give post-exposure vaccination to a human than to give a one-off vaccine to a dog. If some of the funds used for human treatments could be diverted to vaccinate dogs, this would make it much easier to reach the goal of 70% vaccine coverage. If this was achieved, there would no longer be the same need for post-exposure vaccination: money spent would translate to money saved. On the ground, it’s difficult to move funds around like this: human health departments fund the human vaccinations, whereas animal health departments pay for dog vaccines.

Under the new concept of “One Health”, it’s recognised that human and animal health are closely intertwined. The human and animal health departments should be talking to each other, and funds should be easily transferred between them for projects like rabies control. Unfortunately, due to tradition and human issues of control, it isn’t easy to make this happen.

The Global Alliance for Rabies Control is doing its best to achieve this type of change, and the good news is that you can help them today. Go to this website: https://meandmydog.rabiesalliance.org/ and scroll down. You’ll see a blue box that says ‘Share’ and if you click on ‘choose file’, it will automatically launch a window that will allow you to select a photo from your computer.

You and your dog may only make a small difference, but if we all do it, we and our dogs together may be enough to change the world. Our generation can eradicate rabies and wouldn’t it be fitting if our own dogs joined us in that goal?

Ask a vet online- ‘my Bichon friese keeps goin for his side and making bald patchers’

Question from Shell Cottam:

My Bichon friese keeps goin for his side and making bald patchers, we are have in to keep his cone on to stop it, is there anything you can recommend to stop him doin this please

Answer from Shanika Winters:

Hi Shell and thank you for your question regarding your dog going for his side.  I will discuss some possible reasons for your dog’s behaviour and then possible ways to tackle these.

From what you are describing it sounds as though your dog is biting and or scratching at himself to the extent that he is losing his hair.  I am sure that both you and your dog would be a lot happier if he did not have to keep a cone on his head long term to prevent his hair loss.  The first think we need to do is find out the history of how your dog is in general and how long the condition has been going on.  Your vet will ask you some of the following questions:

Is your dog generally well?

By this we mean is he eating, drinking, toileting, happy to exercise and generally acting as normal other than the condition you have brought him in for.  We ask this as underlying illnesses can sometime show up in unexpected ways, so something you may not at first think is linked to the hair loss could be.  An example of this would be if your dog was generally listless and not as keen to exercise along with hair loss this may suggest an underactive thyroid gland.

How long has the condition been present and has it changed?

Your vet will want to know when the condition first started and if there were any particular changes at this time e.g. getting a new pet, change of food, starting a new job all things that can help us to work out why your dog is losing hair and if the situation is stable, improving or getting worse.  It is really important to tell your vet if you have already tried any treatments even if these are over the counter shampoos or anti parasitic treatments.

What are some possible causes for the biting and hair loss?

Top of the list is always parasites; they can sometimes be tricky to spot at first.  We would consider fleas(both cat and dog fleas) and mites(sarcoptes and cheyletiella) as possible causes, these can be diagnosed by examining your pet, and sometimes we need to take skin scrapes, hair combings or hair plucks to look at under the microscope.

Bacterial infections can sometimes lead to irritation and hair loss, this may be seen in the form of spots, scabs, crustiness and or areas of raw wet skin.  In some cases we would take swabs or biopsies from the skin to make sure we were treating with the correct antibiotic and for the correct length of time.  The samples can be looked at by your own vet but are sometimes sent away to a laboratory to be analysed.

Allergies can cause a dog to lose hair, these can be to something your pet has been in contact with such as shampoo/new bedding/plants, something your pet has eaten such as a new food or scavenged items or something inhaled such as pollen and dust (we call this atopy).

Hair loss can be due to a behavioural problem such as boredom or stress.

Hopefully the questions your vet asks will help narrow down the list of possible causes for the hair loss and will point to the answer or at least the most appropriate tests to carry out.

What tests will they do on my dog?

After the basic examination and history taking your vet may suggest doing skin scrapes, hair plucks or combings to look for parasites as mentioned above.  If examining the sample in house(at your own vets) did not give enough information they may ask if the samples can be sent away to an external laboratory, the results may take days to week to come back.  Blood test and or biopsies can give us information as to what is happening in your pet’s body/skin e.g. certain white blood cells are increased in cases of allergies, there may be bacteria present in the blood and or infection fighting cells. Specific blood tests to look for allergies and or hormone imbalances which could be causing the hair loss can also be useful.  Special diets, shampoos or medications may be tried and then the how well your dog responds to these can help us to work out the cause of the problem and if we are on the right track.

What treatments are there?

If parasites are suspected or detected then routine flea and mite treatment will be advised including treatment of the home environment.

For some bacterial infections shampoos are very effective but they may need to be used in combination with the appropriate antibiotics also.

Allergies can be treated by avoiding the substance if possible, anti-allergy drugs, special diets and special vaccines or a combination of these.

Behavioural conditions may need treatment by retraining your dog, strengthening the pet owner relationship, making the home environment more stimulating and sometimes the use of behaviour modifying drugs.

I hope that my answer has helped you to understand that we need to take a logical step by step approach to helping your dog, this would most likely start with ruling out parasites followed by a thorough examination and diagnostic work up by your vet.

Shanika Winters MRCVS (online vet)

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

Ask a vet online- ‘my cat is now 18 yrs old, bit loathe to help him on his way’

Question from Susan Banfield:

My cat is 18 yrs old, has lost most of his front teeth, bad breath, dribbles all the time, extremely skinny and has trouble keeping himself clean.  Bit loathe to help him on his way over the bridge as his coat still shines, bright eyes, eats well and still goes outside to toilet and explore.  Am I being fair?

Thank you

Answer from Shanika Winters:

Hi Susan and thank you for asking one of the most delicate questions that a pet owner and vet will face ‘when is the right time to have my pet put to sleep?’

As our pets ages we are very aware that we do not want them to go on for too long and that our vet can put our pet to sleep so as to prevent unnecessary suffering.  This is however never a simple or easy decision to make and is very much specific to each individual pet, its condition and its owner.  I will go through the way in which we try to help an owner work out if that time has arrived.  Please remember that as your veterinary team we are here to help and support you any your pet through all situations even after you lose a pet we are here to talk to.

From what you are describing it sounds like your cat has done very well to get to 18 years of age and still be going out, toileting correctly and eating.  Loss of teeth is to be expected as pets get older, often as vets we may have extracted teeth due to infection or damage.  You mentioned that your cat was struggling to keep clean, by this I assume that we are talking about grooming of his coat.  Cats and dogs use their front teeth to almost comb through and nibble at their coats, as you mentioned most of these are missing then it would necessary to groom your cat using a comb, brush or mitt.  If an elderly cat is skinny yet eating well this tends to make us wander if the cat may have an overactive thyroid gland, which can be diagnosed by blood test and then  can be treated using tablets or by surgery/radioactive iodine.

Does my cat still have a good quality of life?

There is not a simple answer as to whether a pet still has a good quality of life, we need to discuss how your pet was at its prime and take into consideration that even though it may not be able to do all those things now he can still be leading a happy, pain free life.

The most basic functions are eating, drinking and being able to go to the toilet.  As cats age we may need to offer them softer foods/smaller meals more often in order for them to get enough food.  Some cats need encouragement to drink, making sure we refresh the water in their bowls regularly, have the bowl near where they rest and some cats prefer running water so a water fountain may help.  Toilet function for a cat involves getting into the correct posture which is not always easy if there is any arthritis/pain in the legs/spine and also accessing the litter box( use of lower sided litter boxes can make it easier to get in/out of them).  Minimising pain can be achieved by treating any underlying arthritis and or use of joint supplements.

So even if your pet needs a few small changes to be able to perform its basic functions then it can still be having a good quality of life just with a little bit of extra help.

As owners we ask ourselves whether our pets are still happy.  How happy and responsive your cat is also needs to be considered relative to how it was when younger taking into account normal changes expected with age.  Not all animals are very responsive so cannot all be measured on the same scale, also there are natural changes at different life stages e.g. juvenile cats are very playful and this will reduce as they become adult cats.  Also obesity can affect how interactive a cat is, so helping your cat to reach its optimum weight will reduce risk of diseases such as arthritis and diabetes as well as help him to be more interactive with you.

Grooming is an activity which cats spend a lot of time doing, as they become older and potentially less flexible then this becomes harder for them, but as owners we can help.  If we did not brush our hair for days on end think how uncomfortable, itchy and sore we would feel. So this is a really simple area in which we can help our older cats to feel happier and more comfortable. But they may not appreciate that we are trying to help them at first so little, often and gently is the way forward.

I hope that my answer has helped you to work out how you can help your cat and that the final decision is always yours as the pet owner but that your veterinary team are here to help you make such a hard decision.  We are more than happy to give you the time you need to discuss matters with us to make sure we all do the right thing for your much loved pet.

Shanika Winters MRCVS (online vet)

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

Is your doggy going doddery? – Cognitive Dysfunction in dogs

Cognitive Dysfunction, a condition similar to Alzheimer’s, is very common in older dogs.  50% over the age of 10 year will show some sort of symptoms and this only increases with age.  In the early stages these changes can be subtle and often the condition is only noticed when the pet’s behaviour becomes more severe.  However, recognising and treating the condition early is vital to have the best chance of halting or even reversing the changes in the brain.

The symptoms of cognitive dysfunction will vary between individuals but can include;

  • Confusion or vacancy – these are often the first signs to manifest but are also the most difficult to pick up on.  Affected dogs will have periods (which can initially last just a few seconds) of seeming confused or lost in familiar surroundings.  In the early stages a call or command can bring them out of it but later on it can be more challenging.
  • Pacing or circling – again this can begin as quite a subtle problem but gradually becomes more apparent.  Dogs will often move from room to room in the house, resisting all attempts to stop them or move in small circles.  They can appear quite distressed during the activity, panting and wide eyed, but they won’t stop.
  • Loss of toilet control – This is the change that is most obvious and most often prompts a visit to the vets.
  • Loss of sleep patterns – Whereas they previously slept without problems, affected dogs can be awake in the night and often will howl or bark as well.
  • Becoming withdrawn – Many dogs with cognitive dysfunction will gradually become distant from their family.  They may shy away from contact, deliberately choose to rest away from people or sleep more than normal.
  • Becoming anxious and clingy – Others will go the other way and become more dependent on their owners.  They can develop separation anxiety problems, which is distressing for both them and their owners.

Changes like these used to be just put down to ‘old age’ but now we realise they are a medical condition, similar to Alzheimer’s in humans.  The changes in the brain are similar between dogs and humans, which has lead to more effective treatments being developed.

There are no specific tests for Cognitive Dysfunction, so it has to be diagnosed on symptoms and the lack of other problems.  It is therefore important to rule out, or simultaneously treat, other issues common in older dogs such as arthritis and poor eyesight.

Treatment can be challenging and is aimed at improving the blood flow to the brain and so supporting and maintaining it’s function.  There are medications that achieve this but because of the nature of the problem, they have to be given for at least a month before it can be judged if they are helping or not.  However, in my experience improvements are usually seen well before then and they can be quite dramatic!

There are special diets available containing high levels of anti-oxidants and omega-3 oils, both of which have been shown to aid cognitive function in dogs.

Also helpful is simple environmental enrichment for your pet.  In practical terms this means you need to keep interacting with them, training them and regularly give them new and interesting toys to play with.  You can teach an old dog new tricks!

It is distressing to see a beloved pet’s personality changing and, sadly, given how common it is, many dog owners will have to deal with it.  However, being aware of the symptoms, spotting them early, starting the right medication and making some simple changes to your pet’s routine will make a huge difference.

Cat Henstridge BVSc MRCVS – Read more of her blogs at www.catthevet.com

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

Ask a vet online-‘ My chinese crested wanted to stay outside, saw today his penis is hanging and the end skin colour pink’

Question from Samantha Mihlo Grobler:

Hi. Hope you are well? My chinese crested wanted to stay outside for a week now which are very uncommen for him as he lies inside the whole day. Think somewhere in the block were a female in heat. Saw today his penis are hanging and the end skin colour pink. Could he have broken it or something??? Will send photo on request. Thank you

Answer by Shanika Winters:

Hi Samantha and thank you for your question regarding your male Chinese crested dog.  What you are describing sounds like a condition called Paraphimosis, this is where the penis cannot be retracted back into the prepuce (the skin in which it is normally found).  This condition is an emergency and your dog should be taken to your vet straight away.

There is a bone in the penis of the dog called the os penis, this can break but is very unusual.  However the resulting pain and swelling if the os penis was to break could cause paraphimosis.

Normally the penis is able to move in and out of the opening of the prepuce freely, this can however go wrong and the penis can be prevented from coming out Phimosis or from going back in paraphimosis.

If the penis becomes stuck outside of the prepuce then the tissue can become damaged, infected, cause trouble with urination and be very painful to your dog.

Why has my dog got paraphimosis?

In order for your dog to be unable to retract its penis then either the opening of the prepuce is too small, the tissue of the penis has become excessively swollen or there may be nerve damage preventing retraction.

In some cases we may not be able to identify a cause for the problem but your vet should be able to help relieve your dog’s discomfort and correct the position of the penis.

How will the vet treat my dog?

Firstly your vet will ask a detailed history on your pet’s general health including when he last ate, drank and went to the toilet. As this is an emergency situation your vet will also be physically examining your pet.  It is quite likely that your dog may need sedation or anaesthesia in order for your vet to be able to deal with the paraphimosis.

As the condition is painful your dog will be given pain relief, usually in the form of an injection so that it will be quickly absorbed and start to help your pet feel more comfortable.

In some cases the penis can be lubricated and gently eased back into the prepuce, as the condition may reoccur your vet might ask for your dog to be admitted to the practice for observation.

If the penis cannot be replaced easily then sedation or anaesthesia may be required to allow a urinary catheter (thin flexible tube) to be passed to allow urine to be flow out, followed by decompression (reducing any swelling) of the penis, lubrication and then replacement into the prepuce with or without the need for surgery to enlarge the opening of the prepuce.

It is likely the vet will send your dog home with antibiotics to treat/prevent infection, further pain relief, instructions on closely observing the penis for any further discharge/swelling and to closely observe that your dog can pass urine as normal.

Can I prevent paraphimosis happening to my dog?

Unfortunately there really is no way of preventing paraphimosis from occurring, the most important thing is to know what to look out for and to get your dog treated as soon as possible to minimise pain, distress and long term complications.  If the penis tissue remains outside of the prepuce and swells then its circulation may be affected and some of the tissue may become necrotic (die), which would then need surgically removing.  If your dog cannot pass urine for a long amount of time then this can lead to a backing up of urine from the bladder through the tubes (ureters) to the kidneys which can lead to kidney damage.

What should I look out for?

If your pet is paying extra attention to its penis, licking it, rubbing at it or there is any visible abnormal swelling, difficulty passing urine and or the presence of any unusual discharges then take a closer look. If you are in doubt then make an urgent appointment to see your vet.

I really hope that your dog is well and comfortable and that the condition does not re occur.

Shanika Winters MRCVS (online vet)

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

Ask a vet online- ‘My 10 year old dog has a lump not sure if I should take him to the vet?’

Question from:

Sheree Lu

My 10 year old dog has a lump around the size between a 10-cent/20-cent (Australian) coin. It’s round, soft to touch and when I touch it, it didn’t seem to cause him any discomfort or pain. It’s located on one of his hind flanks, on his thigh-ish area. Like if he sits down, the lump would be on the ground but it’s not near his anus. I’m not sure if I should take him to the vet..?

Answer by Shanika Winters Online vet

Hi Sheree and thanks for your question, with any lump you find on your pet I would advise that you take your dog to be seen by your vet.  I will try and explain in my answer some of the possible causes for the lump and how it can be monitored, treated or removed.

Why has my dog got a small soft lump?

A small soft lump can be caused by an infection, reaction to a parasite/foreign body, swelling in response to an injury/allergy, a tumour or a combination of these.

Infection tends to lead to an area of reddened/hot (inflamed) skin, which may then swell up as it fills with fluid/puss.  An infected lump would usually appear over a few days, may be painful to the touch and might burst followed by crusting over.  An infected lump may be due to a skin infection, where a parasite has bitten, where a foreign body (e.g. a grass seed or thorn) has entered or is trying to exit or maybe on top of an existing lump.

Reactions to a parasite/foreign body will also lead to inflamed skin but can occur over a much longer time scale of days to weeks.  A common parasite that can lead to development of a lump like reaction is a tick.  On some occasions the lump that you see is actually the tick still attached to your pet’s skin, it could also be the reaction to a tick bite that looks like a small lump on your dog’s skin.  Tick bite reactions are more likely to lead to a firm lump (granuloma).  Common foreign bodies that can cause a reactive lump in your pet’s skin include grass seeds and thorns.  A reaction to a foreign body may also be infected and/or painful.  Grass seeds and thorns are easy to come across on walks, depending on what season it is and where you tend to walk your dog.

Allergy or injury can cause a lump to develop quite soon after encountering e.g. a stinging nettle or having a tumble.  Allergic lumps can be single or multiple and can come down themselves in time, but the concern with an allergic reaction is if it affects the airways or circulation then this becomes an emergency situation requiring urgent veterinary attention.  A lump which occurs after an injury such as falling over or bumping into something at high speed is something an owner can usually link to the incident occurring.

Tumours are abnormal growths that come about due to a mutation (change) in your pets cells causing unregulated growth and multiplication of cells.  Tumours can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous and likely to grow/spread).  The time scale of tumour development varies from slow growth to very fast and there are some tumours (mast cell tumours) that can vary in size due to the release of Histamine (reactive body chemical).

Should I take my dog to the vet?

Definitely take your dog to the vet if you find a lump, the urgency with which you need an appointment will depend on how long the lump has been present, how well your dog is and if the lump is changing.

Your vet will ask you a lot of questions such as:

How your dog is in general, eating, drinking and toileting?

How long has the lump been present?

Has the lump changed in shape, size, colour or texture?

Is the lump causing your dog any pain or affecting its normal bodily functions?

Your vet will also ask about any changes in diet, environment, medications and general routine.

The answers to all these questions combined with a full clinical examination will help your vet to work out what the lump could be and what steps should be taken.

What happens next?

In some cases your vet may send your pet home with medication such as antibiotics if the lump is thought to be an area of infection, or pain relief if it is thought to be a reaction to an injury.

If the lump is thought not to be harmful then your vet may ask you to monitor its size, shape, colour and texture on a weekly basis and return for a check-up should there be any significant changes such as the lump doubling in size or changing colour.

If however your vet is still unsure as to what has caused the lump then further tests may be advise, from a fine needle aspirate through to an excisional biopsy with or without x-rays.

Fine needle aspirate is when a needle is inserted into the lump (usually done in an awake pet) and some tissue sucked out into a syringe, this tissue can then be put onto a microscope slide or into a bottle of liquid to enable analysis to try and work out what the lump is.

Biopsy is when a small piece or the entire lump is cut out (usually under a general anaesthetic) and is then sent for analysis to try and work out what the lump is.  If your vet finds other lumps or enlarged lymph nodes which may be related to the original lump then samples may need to be taken from these too.

X-rays of the affected area, chest and abdomen (tummy) may be performed to show how deep the lump goes and whether it has spread to other areas such as the lungs or liver.  The reason why the chest and abdomen are x-rayed is that these are common sites for the spread of malignant growths due to their very good circulation.

If the lump turns out to be cancerous then even after cutting out the lump your pet may need further therapy such as chemotherapy to treat/prevent the lump spreading or re-growing.

I hope that my answer helps to explain the importance of having a lump checked out by your vet, hopefully your dog’s lump is nothing sinister and your vet can confirm this. But due to the many possible causes of a lump it is always safer to get your dog looked at by your vet and then make a joint decision as how best to proceed.

Shanika Winters MRCVS (online vet)

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

Zoonotic diseases – what could you catch from your pet?

Zoonosis is any disease that can pass from animal to human. Although most are easily treated, some of them can be serious and even fatal. Below are several zoonotic diseases that can be passed from dogs and cats, sometimes via other organisms that use the dog and cat as their host.

Toxocariasis

These are the roundworms of the dog and cat (and other species). They can be transferred to humans via their eggs which are left in soil after infected animals have defecated. Children are more predisposed to ingesting the eggs as they might play in the soil and not wash their hands. Adults can also ingest the eggs from eating raw vegetables that have not been washed properly.

If the infection is heavy or repeated, it can cause the disease ‘visceral larva migrans’. This is when the worm larvae move through the body and causing swelling to the major organs and affecting the central nervous system. High-temperature, coughing even pneumonia are various symptoms. The disease is also known to cause ‘ocular larva migrans’ when the worm larvae enter the eye causing inflammation and even blindness.

Once this disease has been diagnosed it is treatable by medication from a doctor.

Dermatophytosis

More commonly known as ringworm this highly infectious disease, affects cats and dogs, it is not a worm at all, but a fungal disease. It can be transferred from animals to humans by skin to skin contact. It can also be spread by contaminated clothing, grooming brushes and other items that have come into contact with the animal.

The disease is characterised in cats and dogs by circular, raised and dry lesions that are normally crusty and cause hair loss. The disease often starts on the head and feet areas, but can spread across the body if left untreated. In cats ringworm is often difficult to detect as it sometimes causes only very mild symptoms. In humans the infected areas are often red rings with scaly edges.

Ringworm can be treated both in animals and humans with the correct medication, however full recovery can be prolonged.

Sarcoptic mange

This is caused by a mite known as sarcoptes scabei canis and is found predominantly on dogs, a different, but closely related mite causes scabies in humans. A similar condition is caused in cats by the mite Notoedes cati. In animals sarcoptic mange causes fur loss and intense itching, where in extreme cases animals can bleed by prolonged scratching, the sarcoptic mange mite that infests dogs can infest humans, however in most cases the mite will quickly die off as they cannot complete their life cycle.

 Leptospirosis

This is a bacterial disease that is carried through the body of the infected animal (in companion animals this is normally dogs) and excreted in the urine. Dogs can pick up the disease by wading through, sniffing or drinking contaminated water where rats have been. Humans can contract this disease with direct contact of the animal’s infected urine.

In dogs the disease can cause vomiting, high-temperature, dehydration, shivering and muscle weakness. In advanced stages it can also cause chronic kidney failure, causing death.

In humans common symptoms are like influenza, however severely infected people can get intense headaches, muscle weakness, high-temperature, vomiting and diarrhoea and meningitis. The infection can go on to produce jaundice and kidney failure. In humans the condition is known as Weil’s disease.

Although there is a vaccine for dogs, there is no vaccine for humans. In some cases people are known to have come into contact with leptospirosis are put on antibiotics by their doctor as a precaution.

Toxoplasmosis

This is a parasitic disease carried by cats. It can be transferred to humans by contaminated soil which carries the parasite after the cat has defecated in the area. The soil may be on poorly washed garden produce, much the same as Toxocariasis can be contracted. It can also be transferred to humans by poor hygiene after cleaning cat litter trays.

In cats there are very non-specific symptoms of toxoplasmosis, they might display a lack of appetite, vomiting or diarrhoea, high-temperature, lethargy and weight loss. These symptoms can be attributed to many other cat illnesses. In humans the symptoms are usually mild but people may display a prolonged high-temperature. The main issue with toxoplasmosis is for pregnant women. Should women that are carrying unborn children contract the condition, it can result in miscarriage or severe disease in the new-born child.

Rabies

Although this condition in the UK is very rare, it is not unknown. With the stringent guidelines of the pet passport scheme and quarantine, animals are highly unlikely to carry the disease in the UK.

The disease itself is an acute viral infection that affects the central nervous system. Affected animals normally show behavioural changes, in further stages they can start to drool, become excited then aggressive, attacking people and other animals. Convulsions and paralysis normally follow, before death.

If a human contracts the disease through a dog or cat bite, it is invariably fatal. After the initial bite, a high-temperature followed by headache and nausea are common. Mood changes such as apprehension or excitability come before paralysis, fear of water and delirium. A respiratory paralysis is often the final cause of death.

Other Zoonoses

Of course it is not just cats and dogs that carry diseases that can be passed to humans. Other species such as birds, goats and cattle can also carry diseases which can, if severe and left untreated, cause death. Reptiles and tropical fish are known to carry salmonella which can make humans very ill and even be fatal. Scientists are constantly monitoring infection and trying to develop treatments for new strains of zoonotic diseases for example avian bird flu, CJD and others.

There are numerous zoonotic diseases in the UK (and there are more carried by cats and dogs than are listed above). Despite this, by the use of proper vaccination (in the case of leptospirosis, regular boosters as well), parasitic treatments, stringent hygiene and common sense, risks to human health from animals can be minimised.

David Kalcher RVN, DipCW(CTJT), A1

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

June bugs – stopping parasites from bugging your pets!

Hurrah, it’s June!  Which means the weather is (hopefully) warming up and summer is just around the corner!  However, just as we enjoy the sunny conditions, so do the bugs and beasties that live on our pets.  A little forethought and treatment now, can save a whole lot of trouble (and maybe some vets bills!) in the future.

Fleas

These irritating little creatures are the ones everyone thinks about as the weather warms but here’s an interesting fact; actually the worst time of year for fleas is the Autumn.  Then the few fleas our pets have picked up over the summer move into our centrally heated houses and have a party.  However, what that means is by protecting our pets over the summer, we not only keep them from getting itchy bites now, we can stop a house infestation later!

It can be surprisingly difficult to know if an animal has fleas, especially cats who are good at grooming out all the evidence, but you need to look for small black flecks of flea dirt in the coat, small red raised bites on the skin, excessive scratching and, of course, the insects themselves.  Rather than waiting for them to appear (especially as you will probably miss them anyway), treating against them preemptively is best.  There are various ways of doing this including spot-ons, tablets, sprays, injections and collars.  However, whichever you chose to use, make sure it comes from your vet, who will provide far more effective products (and better advice!) than pet shops.

Scabies

The more common name for Scabies is ‘Fox Mange’ and certainly most dogs (it is very rare in cats) who contract it are often those who enjoy rolling in fox poo (why DO they do that?!) or poking their heads down fox holes.  The Scabies mite is a burrowing kind; it digs through the skin causing a great deal damage.  The most commonly affected body areas are the head, ears, limbs and groin, where the skin will lose the hair, be very red and inflamed, is often extremely scabby and always very itchy.  It is easily treated, and prevented, using veterinary spot-on medications.

Ticks

Although these little blighters are most active in the Spring and Autumn, if the weather remains warm but wet (which pretty much describes our summers!), they can survive longer.  When they are attached, ticks look like small, grey beans stuck onto the skin.  They remain in place for a few days and get larger over this time as they gorge themselves on our pet’s blood.  Left untreated they will eventually drop off but while they are biting they can infect animals with some nasty diseases, are unsightly and can leave the skin very sore.  There are spot-ons which kill ticks but usually the best way to remove them is manually.  Tick pullers are cheap and easy to use, your vet can give you a demonstration!

Worms

Regularly worming your pets all year round is important, especially if you have young children, but it is particularly vital in the warmer months.  This is for several reasons; firstly, many of the worms that infect our pets are passed from prey animals, so hunters (and it is mainly cats but some dogs are very good rabbiters!) are more vulnerable when prey numbers are higher.  Secondly, worm eggs (which are microscopic & are passed in faeces in their millions) can survive in soil for a long time and although most pets get out and about all year round, most inevitably spend more time outside, and more time snuffling though flowerbeds and undergrowth, in the summer.

Like fleas it can be very difficult to know if a pet has worms.  Many people know about signs like itchy bottoms & bloated tummies but, in fact, most infestations are symptom free, another reason why regular treatment is vital.  There are spot-ons, tablets and liquids available and, again, your vet is the best source for advice on which kind to pick.

I hope I haven’t made your skin crawl too much thinking about all these little blighters!  Just remember, prevention is always better than cure and the best people to ask for advice on what is best for your pets is always your vet!

Cat Henstridge BVSc MRCVS – Read more of her blogs at www.catthevet.com

If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.

Ask a vet online –‘2 yorkshire terriers sneezing for the last 2 days’

Question from Sharon Barrett:

I think my 2 Yorkshire Terriers may have hay fever as the last 2 days they have been sneezing, they are 6yrs old can I give them antihistamines?

Answer from Shanika Winters:

Hi Sharon and thank you for your question about your two sneezing Yorkshire terriers and whether it  is safe to give them antihistamines.  The first thing I would advise is not to treat your pet without having discussed this with your vet or better still having had your pet examined.  I know that we often do not complete a course of medication for ourselves or our pets and end up with tablets left over which we keep just in case they may be useful.  We should really not use medications unless they have been prescribed specifically for an individual pet or under the direction of your vet.

Why are my dogs sneezing?

 Sneezing can be due to allergy such as hay fever (Atopy, allergic to an inhaled substance) but in dogs is more commonly due to infection or irritations from inhaled substance e.g. dust/smoke or a foreign body e.g. grass seed/thorn.  Less common but a possibility is also that some dogs can develop tumour type growths in their noses.

The simplest way to make a diagnosis is to give a detailed history of what has been going on with your dogs for the last few days, where they have been and what they have been exposed to.  Your vet will then perform a full examination of your dogs, which may include looking up their noses, some pets will allow this to be done with or without some local anaesthetic spray and or sedation.  If infection is suspected then your pet might have an increased temperature which can be easily checked by your vet.

Sometimes the type of discharge coming out of your pets nose can provide information, it is more likely to be clear and thin if simply allergy or viral infection however with bacterial and fungal infections the discharge may be thicker and yellow/green.  If blood is present then this suggests some ulceration of the lining of your dog’s nose may have occurred.

A common cause of sneezing in an otherwise well dog is kennel cough infection (infectious trache bronchitis), this can sometimes show up as sneezing and a watery nasal discharge through to a harsh dry choking type cough.  Kennel cough is very easily spread by contact with other dogs or the droplets they cough or sneeze out.  Vaccination does exist for kennel cough via injection/nasal spray but it is not 100% effective as kennel cough is brought about by some bacteria and some viruses which can change (mutate) making them tricky to vaccinate against.

What further test might be done?

Your vet might suggest that blood tests, x-rays or rhinoscopy may be needed to help make a diagnosis.  Blood tests can be to check the general health of your pet and give an indication of infections or allergy. X-rays show a lot of detail of the nasal passageways, if they are symmetrical, and if there is anything abnormal present there.  X-rays will most likely be done under a general anaesthetic to allow the best positioning of your pet and a nasal flush can be performed too.  A nasal flush is when sterile saline is flushed up each nostril and then some of the liquid is sucked back out and can be examined under a microscope or sent to a laboratory for analysis.  Rhinoscopy is when a very thin tube or camera is inserted up the nostril to have a close and detailed look for any changes or foreign material.

In some cases trial treatment may be opted for before major diagnostic tests are performed, the decision as to how things go is made between you and your vet.

What treatment might be given for my sneezing dogs?

 As mentioned treatment might be tried on its own if infection or allergy is suspected which could include antibiotics, steroid or antihistamines. The medications may be given as tablets or injections. Antibiotics can be used in the treatment of allergy if infection is also present.  Some allergies are treated using immunosuppressant medications or specific vaccines.

If a foreign body is found this will be removed and then your dog may need some antibiotic and pain relief to allow the lining of its nasal passageways to heal.

If a growth is suspected then this will have a small piece taken out (biopsy) which will then be sent for analysis to determine the best course of treatment, which may be surgical removal and or chemotherapy.

The prognosis for your dog will depend on what has caused the sneezing and how effective the treatment available for that specific cause is.

I hope that I have managed to answer your question and that your dog’s sneezing is soon under control and they are back to their normal selves.  It is really important to work with your vet to get the correct treatment for your pet to have a speedy recovery.

Shanika Winters MRCVS (online vet)

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