Browsing tag: Mites

Ask a vet online – ‘Can you suggest a home remedy for mites in dogs please?’

Question from Sharon Barett:

Hi can you suggest a home remedy for mites in dogs please? I used the spot on treatment off the vet for 3 months but it did not make any difference she still scratches it a King Charles Spaniel 5 months old thank you .x

Answer from Shanika Winters MRCVS, online vet

Hi Sharon and thank you for your question regarding your itchy Cavalier King Charles Spaniel.  In order to answer your question I will discuss the possible causes of the itch, how we work out a diagnosis and then some treatment options.

Dog Scratching Flea

Getting the itch!

Why is my pet scratching/itchy?

If your pet is scratching itself then something will be causing an irritation, most commonly this is due to the presence of external parasites such as fleas (Ctenocephalides canis or felis) or mites (e.g. cheyletiella, sarcoptes scabeii). Itchiness can also be due to the presence of an allergy to things you pets eats (food allergy), contacts (contact allergy) or inhales (atopic allergy).

How to diagnose the itch

It is really important to work with your vet to find out the cause of your pet’s itch. The first thing your vet will do is ask for a detailed history of your pets condition including how long it has been going on, any changes to your pets routine, any changes to your household, what treatments have already been tried and if they have had any effect.

The next step is for your vet to perform a full physical examination of your pet paying extra attention to the skin and coat, underlying diseases can have symptoms that affect the skin which include Hypothyroidism( under active thyroid gland), Cushing’s disease ( over production of steroid) and diseases of the immune system.

Finally your vet may suggest performing some diagnostic test on your pet such as skin scrapes, hair plucks, sticky tape strips, skin biopsies, wet paper test, swabs and blood tests.

Skin scrapes: these involve use of a sterile scalpel blade to scrape the surface of your pet’s skin to collect surface cells and debris, which is then examined under a microscope usually for parasites and or fungi.  For certain parasites such as Demodex mite (not usually itchy) a deep scrape has to be taken.

Sticky tape strips: a strong sticky tape is applied to your pet’s skin and then removed, again this is examined under a microscope looking at the surface cells and debris similar to above but it is a less invasive procedure.

Hair plucks: as the name suggests a clump of hair is plucked from your pet and examined as for skin scrapes and sticky tape strips, sometimes this can help to show up Demodex mites (which live down the hair shaft in the hair follicle) or ring worm (actually a fungal skin disease). Hair plucks can be cultured to try and grow bacteria and fungi; this is usually done at a laboratory.

Skin biopsies: this is usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation as a full thickness sample of the skin is cut out, put into preservative and sent to a laboratory for analysis. Often several samples are taken from different sites.  This gives a lot of information about how the skin is reacting and what types of cells and changes are present.

Wet paper test: your vet will comb through your pet’s coat and collect the debris and put it onto a sheet of wet white paper, if small red dots appear this is suggestive of fleas, as the flea dirt contains digested blood and this turns red when wet.

Swabs: there are sterile cotton bud tipped sticks which are wiped in any discharges present on the skin (often in the ears), the material on the swab can then be stained and examined under a microscope or sent off for culture and sensitivity to grow bacteria and see which antibiotics are affective against them.

Blood test: these can be routine to check overall body function or very specific looking into what your pet is allergic to.  The test chosen will be a decision made with you and your vet depending on your pet’s condition.

What treatment will help my pet?

As external parasites are the most common cause of an itchy pet this is often the first treatment approach whether parasites have been detected or not.  It is important to use a product recommended by your vet that is safe for your pet and covers the suspected range of parasites.  It is also important to use the treatment correctly and repeat as advised. It can take several weeks to clear up some parasites.  Your vet may also advise you to treat other pets in your household and the home environment itself. Especially in the case of fleas as the majority of the flea population is living in the environment ant not only on your pet.

Parasite treatments come in tablet, injection, spot on and spray preparations. Your vet will help to direct you to the method which is most appropriate for you and your pet.

Food allergies are usually treated by feeding a low allergy or special diet (in which protein molecules are broken down so as not to cause reaction).  In some cases your vet may recommend a home cooked diet.  The diet needs to be stuck to strictly and can take 3 months or more to begin to allow improvement in your pet’s skin signs.

Contact allergies usually are present on the paws and tummy, which are areas in contact with the ground.  Once the substance your pet is reacting to has been worked out it is then needs to be avoided or stop being used.

Atopic allergies are usually diagnosed by a combination of examination, skin and blood tests.  There are several treatment options which include medical therapy using drugs or special vaccines.  The drugs often used to treat atopy include antihistamine (reduce allergic reactions), steroid (anti-inflammatory and suppress the immune system from reacting), immunosuppressant (which suppress the immune system form reacting) and antibiotics may be used to treat any infection present on top of the allergy. Special vaccines can be made up in some cases to try and help desensitise your pet to the individual things that he or she reacts to; these are administered in gradually increasing doses over many months by injection.

I hope that I have managed to answer your question by explaining how complex an itchy dog’s condition can be.  I really recommend that you return to your vet and come up with a joint plan of attack to help your pet.  I hope that your dog is feeling much more comfortable very soon.

 Shanika Winters MRCVS (Online Vet)

If you are worried about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet or use our interactive symptom guide.

Rain Scald, Mud Fever and Greasy Heels – Wet Weather Care for Horses

I heard on the news recently that last year was one of the wettest on record. I don’t know if it’s true – but it certainly feels about right! The big danger to our horses from this, of course, is Rain Scald and Mud Fever.

Most people have probably come across Rain Scald on occasions – the scabs hidden away in the coat feel like mud, until you pull them up and see the characteristic “paint brush” appearance as the hair stays stuck in the scab. Rain Scald is caused by a bacterium called Dermatophilus congolensis. This usually lives (fairly) harmlessly on the skin, but if the skin gets and stays wet, the bacteria can invade and set up an infection.

Most cases are mild, with just a few scabs here and there, but (especially in older horses and those with Cushing’s disease) it can be more general and leave large raw patches. Even a mild case can put a horse “off games” if the scabs or raw patches are under the saddle.

Most cases resolve on their own with simple care – gently brush out the scabs, and most importantly keep the area dry to allow it to heal. That said, older horses and those with other diseases may need a helping hand, in which case a short course of antibiotics from your vet will usually clear it up. HOWEVER… Unless the underlying problem is sorted, it will rapidly return! Prevention is far more important, and that means keeping the skin as dry as possible. Remember, if your horse gets wet, that’s fine as long as he can then dry out thoroughly. It’s if the skin stays constantly wet that problems ensue – and watch out for rugs, especially in early autumn! When it’s wet, but not that cold, horses can easily sweat up under their rugs, and sweat seems to be even worse than rain for causing Rain Scald.

The other thing to watch out for, of course, is Mud Fever. This is an infection of the skin behind the heels (its sometimes called Greasy Heels), and is most common in horses with long feathers. It’s a far more complicated disease than rain scald, and has a large number of contributary causes. The most important is wet weather, of course – as the skin gets wet, bacteria can invade, as in rain scald – long feathers keep the water trapped in the area, slowing down the drying, so cobs and heavy horses are more prone. However, mites are also a known cause (the first signs are usually stamping of the hind legs), and its not just bacteria, because some cases include yeasts and other fungi as well. Sometimes, really aggressive bacteria like Pseudomonas can establish themselves, and they can be really difficult to manage.

The symptoms vary, but generally it first presents as scabs in the angle of the heels behind the pastern. If untreated, or as the infection gets worse, cracks in the skin can open up and start oozing fluid and pus, and the legs thicken. Eventually, lymphangitis can occur and ultimately, the skin can slough or even become gangrenous.

Initial treatment is very simple: wash the affected area with a skin disinfectant (like Hibiscrub or similar), and once the scabs are softened, gently wash them off. This may take several days of work! If the infection progresses, or doesn’t improve, you will need veterinary attention.

Most cases respond well to a course of first-line antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin/Streptomycin or Timethoprim Sulpha); however, if it doesn’t respond in a week or so, I would always take a swab for bacterial culture and sensitivity testing. This give you a much better idea what bacteria you’re dealing with, and how best to kill them – I had a case once which turned out to be a multi-resistant Pseudomonas infection, that needed some really powerful off-license antibiotics to resolve it. Sometimes you can use topical antibiotics (creams, ointments etc), and in severe cases, I have occasionally used a “bespoke” ointment that I made up from several different antibiotics and an anti-inflammatory. If there are mites involved, most vets will use an injectable anti-mite drug; however, this isn’t licensed for use in horses so has to be put up by your vet.

As usual, prevention is much better (and cheaper!) than treatment, though, so keeping the heels dry is vital. Sometimes using an aqueous cream like zinc and castor oil, or Vaseline, can be useful in encouraging the water to run off – but if you do use them, make sure you wash it off and dry it thoroughly once or twice a week before reapplying, so it doesn’t get too thick.

Of course, in an ideal world, keep the horses out of muddy fields and trackways… But given the recent weather, I fear we’re all going to have to be a lot more careful to keep our horses and ponies warm and dry this autumn.

If you are worried about any symptoms your Horse or pony may be displaying please talk to your vet or try our Interactive Equine Symptom Guide to help decide what to do next.

In praise of the Guinea Pig

guinea_pigI love Guinea Pigs, I think they are fabulous little creatures, friendly, full of character and very easy to keep.  I recently did some work for a vets based at the back of a large pet store and one of the highlights of my day was walking past the Guinea Pigs and watching them all running about!

Guinea Pigs make great pets but are particularly good for children. They are easy to handle and calm when held, in contrast to rabbits, who although very cute to look at, can cause nasty scratches if they wriggle in your arms.  They are easy to tame and rarely bite, unlike hamsters, who can nip if they are disturbed and are not used to being handled.  Guinea Pigs are also great pets to do things for; make them a little house from an up-turned shoebox and they will be straight in there; pop in a couple of toilet rolls and they will get to work shredding them immediately, another reason why I think they are so good for children, who will be delighted their efforts are well received.

Guinea Pigs are very sociable creatures and will soon learn to ‘talk’ to you when you appear with their dinner!  They should be kept with at least one other of their own kind and watching them play is a great distraction.  However, although Guinea Pigs and Rabbits are often kept together, it is not an ideal pairing.  Not only are their dietary requirements different but rabbits can often bully the Pigs and sometimes cause nasty bites.  Also, rabbits can carry a bacteria which doesn’t affect them but can cause flu like symptoms in guinea pigs.

Guinea Pigs are easy, and cheap, to keep and, as long as they are looked after well, tend to be relatively healthy.  They should be fed a diet consisting of a majority of good quality hay, a small amount of pelleted Guinea Pig food and a daily amount of fresh vegetables.  These, and the Guinea Pig food, are particularly important as, like humans, they cannot make Vitamin C in their bodies.  They cope equally well outdoors or indoors but they should always have enough room to have a good run about and be provided with different toys to keep their interest.  They should be handled and played with everyday as they thrive on human contact and interaction.

I don’t see many Pigs in my consultations (much to my disappointment!), particularly not for the number of them there are out there.  The biggest issues they have are fur mites, which can make them very itchy, or dental problems.  It is difficult to prevent the mites and some pigs are very sensitive to them (it is quite common to see two together where one is badly affected and the other is fine).  However, they are easily treated with medications and anti-mite spot-ons (just like the kind used for cats and dogs) from your vet and these spot-on products can be used to ward off infestations, which can be a good idea for those Pigs who are vulnerable.  The majority of dental problems are caused by over-grown teeth; Guinea Pig’s teeth grow continually and can develop nasty spikes if they are not fed correctly.  A Pigs diet should consist of at least 80% hay, the tough woody stems help to keep the teeth ground down and the correct shape.

So, if you are looking for a new pet who will be a great companion without being too much trouble, who will be less wriggly than a Rabbit, more handle-able than a Hamster and less giddy than a Gerbil, why not try a Guinea pig?!

Cat is the resident vet at Pet Street

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