Browsing tag: raisins

Grapes and raisins can kill dogs. Read this to find out how to keep your pet safe this Christmas.

Does your dog enjoy mince pies and Christmas cake? Beware: you could accidentally poison them.

For many people, it seems unbelievable that grapes and raisins can poison dogs. They’re harmless to humans. We’ve all seen dogs occasionally eating foods containing raisins with no apparent ill effects. How can they suddenly be poisonous?

Why are grapes and raisins not always poisonous to dogs, and never poisonous to humans?

First, like all poisons, the poisonous effect depends on the dose taken per kilogram of animal body weight. Large dogs can safely eat some raisins without problems.

Secondly, the toxic ingredient in raisins seems only to be present intermittently, so a dog may eat raisins without problems on several occasions, then fall seriously ill the next time.

What is the toxic ingredient in grapes and raisins?

The actual toxic ingredient is still a mystery. The fact that grapes and raisins can be poisonous has only been deduced by circumstantial evidence, with many dogs developing acute renal failure for no obvious reason, with the only common factor being the previous ingestion of grapes or raisins. Samples of the fruit in such cases has been analysed, but a toxic agent has not yet been isolated.

The best guess so far is that it is a water-soluble substance, and that it’s in the flesh of the grape/raisin, but not the seed. One theory is that it is a mycotoxin (i.e. a poison produced by moulds or fungi on the grapes). The problem in dogs was first highlighted after a year with high levels of rainfall. This had led to damp grapes which were more likely to develop fungal growth.
But why should humans be safe from this toxin? It’s well known that cultured dog kidney cells in the laboratory are exquisitely sensitive to other types of mycotoxins. It makes logical sense that dog kidneys might also be more sensitive to damage by another mycotoxin, even its identity has yet to be established.

So how much do owners need to worry about grape/raisin toxicity?

If a terrier steals a mince pie, is a visit to the vet needed? If a Labrador has a slice of Christmas cake, do they need to be taken to the emergency vet?

This is always a judgment that is not black and white. It seems sensible to look at the lowest recorded doses of grapes or raisins linked to acute renal failure in previous cases of poisoned dogs. This allows an estimate of the probable toxic dose depending on the animal’s body weight.

Grapes

The lowest toxic dose is around 20g grapes per one kilogram of body weight. A typical grape weighs 2 – 5g, making a toxic dose is around 4 grapes per kg.
So if a 5kg terrier eats 20 grapes, or a 30kg Labrador eats 120 grapes, there’s a high chance of a serious problem, and veterinary intervention is definitely indicated.

Raisins

The lowest poisonous dose in confirmed cases has been around 3g/kg. An average raisin weighs around 0.5g, making a toxic dose approximately 6 raisins per kg.
So if a 5kg terrier eats 30 raisins, or a 30kg Labrador eats 120 raisinsthey need to see the vet. Some studies have suggested that the toxic agent is neutralised by cooking, so cooked raisins (e.g. in pies and cakes) may not present such a high risk.

Important note

Please remember that the above doses mention quantities that have definitely caused serious kidney failure in the past. The decision on whether or not to take a pet to the vet is a personal decision, taken after balancing the possible risks. Many people prefer to take a conservative approach, to be as safe as possible. For example, if a dog has eaten even half of the above quantities, it may be safer to take them to the vet for “just in case” treatment.

What do vets do for dog that have eaten grapes/ raisins?

1) If ingestion has happened in the previous hour.

This is the ideal situation: the vet can give an injection to cause the pet to vomit, emptying the stomach and removing the grapes/raisins before any toxic ingredients have had a chance to be absorbed into the bloodstream.

2) If ingestion has happened in the previous two days but the pet is still well

Depending on the situation, vomiting may still be induced, activated charcoal may be given to limit absorption of the toxin, and intravenous fluids may be given to flush fluids through the kidneys in an attempt to minimise any damage. Blood and urine tests may be recommended to monitor kidney function. If the dog is well after three days, then the high risk period is over.

3) If ingestion has happened and the dog is unwell (e.g. vomiting, dull, inappetant)

In such cases, the kidneys may have already been damaged by the toxin. Urine and blood tests will be carried out to assess the severity of the damage to the kidneys, and intensive care will be needed to save the pet’s life, including high levels of intravenous fluids. The prognosis is guarded: unfortunately, some affected dogs die, despite the vet’s best efforts.

 Conclusion.

  • Keep grapes and raisins away from dogs.
  • If any dog eats them accidentally, phone your local vet (even if it’s after-hours)
  • Tell your vet how many grapes/raisins were eaten along with the body weight of your pet.
  • Your vet will then advise you on the safest course of action.

The nightmare before Christmas…

Christmas is one of my favourite times of year, all those presents and decorations, not to mention the yummy food!  However, there are problems we see commonly with pets around the holiday season that are directly connected with the festivities and this blog is about recognising and helping to prevent them.

Chocolate

chocolateChocolate is poisonous to dogs and there is often a lot more of it around at this time of year!  The basic rule is the posher the chocolate, the worse it is, as the more expensive brands contain higher percentages of cocoa solids.  The cocoa solids are ingredient which is dangerous and they can cause agitation, palpitations and damage both the heart and the kidneys.  If your dog has eaten chocolate and you are concerned, call your vet and keep the packaging, so you can tell them the cocoa solid percentage.  Chocolate poisoning is treated by making the dog sick, putting them on a drip and giving them sedatives.  Ensure during the festive period that all treats are kept well out of reach of dogs (don’t forget the ones on the tree!) and that the only chocolate they are given is especially for dogs.

christmas dinner
Christmas dinner

It is tempting, when we are tucking into a fabulous spread for Christmas lunch, to share this with our pets.  However, their bodies are less able to cope with unusually rich food than us and nobody wants to be clearing up vomit and diarrhoea on Christmas day.  If you do give your pet a treat, stick to small amounts of lean meat and vegetables, avoid rich gravy or dressings.   Also, NEVER feed cats or dogs turkey bones.  These can cause huge damage to the guts and sometimes require expensive surgery to remove them. Another thing to avoid is giving Christmas pudding or cake to your dog, as raisins are very toxic to dogs.

baubles
Tinsel and decorations

Cats find tinsel fascinating and will often play with it if they get the chance.  However, this can cause problems.  The way cat’s heads are put together means they are prone to getting things stuck around the back of their throat.  The small fronds of tinsel are just the right size to get caught here, especially if the cat has been chewing at them and they usually require an anaesthetic to remove them.  You should also take care to keep any delicate or glass decorations or baubles out of reach, as they could cause a pet significant damage if they are broken or eaten.  Sometimes, especially if your animals are young or lively, it can be best to dispense with the posh Christmas decs until they are older or calm down and stick to the ordinary plastic ones instead!

dog_sleeping

Visitors

Christmas is a time for socialising, which often means a regular supply of visitors to the house.  Most animals will cope with this fine and enjoy all the extra attention, but some will find this very stressful.  If you know your cat or dog dislikes having people in the house, ensure they have the means to escape from them and don’t force them to be sociable.  Also, stick as close to their normal routine as possible, which help them feel more settled.


fireworkFireworks

A great many pets find fireworks with their bangs and flashes very frightening and  they are commonly set off at this time of year.  It is important you deal with this fear correctly to ensure that you do not inadvertently make it worse.  Firstly, prepare a ‘den’ for your pet somewhere in your home where they feel safe.  It should be warm and cosy with a covered top as pets will feel most secure being completely surrounded.  Try using the DAP or Feliway diffusers to calm pets, these release comforting pheromones which can help your pet feel much more secure.  When the fireworks are happening, keep the curtains closed, play the TV or radio to drown out the noise and, hard though it is, try not to comfort them when they are scared as this will only praise the behaviour and can make them worse.  Finally, consider starting a desensitising programme to help your pet cope with the fireworks once the season is over, your vet will be able to advise you on this and provide CDs of firework noises to play.

If you have questions about this, or any other pet related subject, you should contact your vet.

Cat is the vet for petstreet.co.uk an on-line social networking site for pet lovers.

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